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Reading الصف الثاني الثانوي علي جميع الوحدات من 10 للوحده الاخيرة ترم ثاني 2018


Tape Scripts
Unit 10
Hassan: What was the radio programme about that you were listening to, Ali?
Ali:            It was very interesting, Hassan. It was an interview with a farmer. He was talking about organic farming.
Hassan: What did he say

?
Ali:            He said that organic farming was the best way to farm.
Hassan: Really? I don’t think it is. Why did he think that?
Ali:            Well, he said that when he was learning about farming, his teacher told him that most fruit and vegetables were sprayed with pesticides. He explained that pesticides could be poisonous.
Hassan: I suppose so.
Ali:            He also said that in the past, the Nile had flooded every year. He explained that this had left fertile soil on the fields, so farmers hadn’t needed chemical fertilizers then. He said that the Nile doesn’t flood the fields now, but there must be a better way to improve the soil than spraying the fields with chemicals.
Hassan: What is the answer, then?
Ali:            He said that he wanted to improve the quality of the soil by adding natural, organic fertilizers.
Hassan: But surely it’s much quicker and easier for farmers to spray their crops with chemical fertilizers and pesticides, isn’t it?
Ali:            Yes, but he said that using organic fertilizers would be cheaper than using chemical fertilizers.
Hassan: What about the quantity of crops farmers get, though? Modern farming makes more money than organic farming, doesn’t it? What did he say about that?
Ali:            He said that organic farms didn’t produce the same quantities as modern farms, so they didn’t make quite as much money. But he said that organic food is much better for you.
Hassan: I’m not so sure. Did he talk about genetically modified crops, too?
Ali:            He asked the interviewer if he could talk about genetically modified crops, but the interviewer said that this was going to be the subject of the programme the following week.
Hassan: It’ll be on next Tuesday, won’t it?
Ali:            Yes, it will. It’s an interesting subject, isn’t it?
Hassan: Yes, I’d like to listen to that.
  Thousands of years ago, most people were hunters whose food came from the animals and fish that they had killed and from nuts, roots and fruit that they had collected. Later, these hunters lived in one place and became farmers whose method of getting food was to grow crops from the seeds of wild plants. Over time, they noticed that some plants were better than others. They saved the seeds from these plants and so the quality of their crops improved.
Like plants, all other living things contain genes which control what they will be like. Modern scientists can put genes into plants and animals in their laboratories, and this means that they can modify their genes in order to change what they are like. This is called genetic engineering.
A type of tomato is an example of this. When tomatoes ripen, one of their genes produces a chemical that makes the fruit rot. Scientists can modify this gene so that the tomatoes do not rot so quickly. This is one way in which genetically modified (GM) crops can improve agriculture. Scientists know that this technology can also protect people from starvation in countries where insects or diseases destroy crops. For example, fruit and vegetables have been modified so that they are not damaged by the diseases that kill other plants.
However, many people believe that modified food is unnatural and fear that genetic engineering may bring new diseases in the future. So should we eat genetically modified food or not? Surprisingly, biscuits, cakes and many other foods that we have been eating for years already contain genetically modified ingredients. Have they done us any harm?
Unit 11
Voice: When his novel, Moby Dick, came out in 1851, Herman Melville had been writing for five years. He had already written two books called Typee and Omoo, and was popular in Britain and America. Today, Moby Dick is his most famous novel but at first people didn’t like it. But let’s start at the beginning and look at what Herman Melville had done before he wrote his greatest work. Melville was born into a good New York family in 1819. His father, who imported goods from France, died when Herman was twelve. After he had left school, the young boy worked in very ordinary jobs in offices and on farms.
  By the age of twenty, Herman was bored with the jobs he had been doing and decided to look for adventure, so, in 1839, he went to sea – first on a whaling ship, and later on a navy ship. During one of his voyages he went ashore on the Maquesas Islands and lived for a few months with the primitive Typee people.
  In his mid-twenties, Melville returned to live with his mother and write about his adventures. Tom, the hero of his novel Typee, spends four exciting months with a group of island people. His second novel, Omoo, was about Melville’s life on islands in the Pacific Ocean. People loved reading about the unusual life Melville had been living in these strange, remote places, and so both these novels were very successful. In 1847, Melville married Elizabeth Shaw and they bought a farm. Here, Melville worked for eight hours a day on his third novel, Moby Dick, which came out in 1851. This was a serious book and many of his readers were disappointed because it was not the exciting adventure story his first two novels had been. Melville continued to write short stories and a collection of poems, but wrote nothing important except a story called Billy Budd. Melville had not finished this final novel about life at sea at the time of his death in 1891.
Reading
THE STORY OF MOBY DICK
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  Ishmael, the novel’s storyteller, went to sea on a whaling ship called the Perquod. The ship’s captain, Ahab, had lost a leg when his ship was attacked by a great white whale called Moby Dick on his last voyage. Ahab told his men that the purpose of their voyage was to hunt and kill Moby Dick and he offered a gold coin to the first sailor who saw him.
  The Perquod sailed round the continent of Africa into the Indian Ocean. Whenever they met other ships which had been whaling in the area, Ahab asked their captains if they had seen Moby Dick. A sailor from one of these ships predicted that anyone who tried to kill Moby Dick would die. After this, there were many accidents on the Perquod, but nothing stopped Ahab. He was determined to kill the whale which he thought of as his enemy.
  Suddenly, a storm hit the Perquod and one of the sailors fell to his death from the ship. Soon after this, they saw Moby Dick and Ahab sent out men armed with harpoons in a small boat, but the whale destroyed the boat. The next day, more boats were sent out and, although a harpoon hit the whale, Moby Dick was strong enough to attack the Perquod. On the third day, boats were sent out again and this time the whale rammed and sank the ship. Captain Ahab was pulled out on a harpoon rope and died attached to the whale. The boat sank and all the crew drowned except Ishmael, who held onto some floating wood. He was rescued by another whaling ship and lived to tell the story.
Unit 12
Presenter           : Good afternoon and welcome to The World Tomorrow, the programme which looks into the future and predicts what life will be like in 20, 30 or 40 years' time. Today’s guest is a university professor of medicine who is currently doing research into new ways of treating common diseases. Welcome to the programme Professor Osman. Could you start by telling us what kinds of diseases you are working on at the moment?
Prof Osman           : Thank you, of course. At the moment, my research team and I are looking at three of the world’s commonest diseases: diabetes, heart disease and arthritis. I’m pleased to say that we’re making progress in all three areas. We think that fewer people will be living with these diseases in the future.
Presenter           : That’s excellent news. So, are you working on new treatments for these diseases?
Prof Osman           : Yes, we are, but the most exciting news is that sometime in the not-too-distant future, we’ll be treating these diseases to cure them and not only to manage them.
Presenter           : How is curing a disease different from managing it?
Prof Osman           : Well, let’s take the example of diabetes. At the moment, we cannot cure diabetes. If someone has the disease, they’ll always have it. We can only help people to manage it so that it doesn’t become worse. In 2030, people may be taking medicines which cure diabetes completely, so that the person no longer has the disease.
Presenter           : That really is very exciting. Could you explain how this is possible?
Prof Osman           : Well, traditionally, doctors have always treated diseases by giving their patients medicines of some kind, or by operating on them. In the future, we’ll be using new cells from patients to repair parts of their body which are damaged. So, if a patient’s heart is damaged, we’ll be able to mend it with new cells from the patient’s own body. We’ll also be making new tissue from the cells in a laboratory.
Presenter           : This is fantastic. When are we likely to see these developments?
Prof Osman           : I think that I’ll be working on the project for the next 15 to 20 years.
Presenter           : Thank you for being our guest this afternoon, Professor Osman, and for bringing us such good news.
Prof Osman           : It’s my pleasure.
Reading
OUR FUTURE ENVIRONMENT
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Many experts are predicting that the population of the world will increase to around ten billion by the year 2100. At the same time as the population increases, they believe that rapid climate change will affect our environment. Climate scientists are now looking at the effect of this trend on our growing population. Some believe that in the year 2100, the planet we will be living on will be almost unrecognisable.
Most people agree that, over the next 50100 years, the earth will be getting gradually warmer because of climate change. This means that the ice on mountains, at the North Pole and at the South Pole will be melting very quickly. This will probably cause serious floods and may mean that many people will have to leave their homes. The prediction is that in 2100, many millions of people will be living in different areas or even in different countries because of floods. Also, climate change will turn other areas into desert and this will affect food production. This means that in the future, more people will be importing their food from areas less affected by climate change.
It is also possible that the worlds population may not increase to ten billion. If the effects of climate change mean that our environment becomes hostile, the populations of some countries may even be decreasing in around 40 years time.
Of course, we cannot be sure that any of these predictions will come true. However, we can be certain that scientists and engineers will be working hard to reduce the effects of climate change, for example by building flood defences to protect growing cities.
Review D
Maya           : What are you doing next Saturday, Dina? Do you want to come to my cousins’ house
  at the beach? I’ll be spending the weekend there.
Dina           : I’m sorry, I can’t. I’ll be flying to Madeira on Saturday.
Maya           : Madeira’s an island near Africa, isn’t it?
Dina           : That’s right. I’m going on holiday there with my parents.
Maya           : That’s nice. So, you’re not here next Tuesday?
Dina           : No, sorry, Maya. On Tuesday, I might be whale watching.
Maya           : Fantastic! You love whales, don’t you?
Dina           : Yes, I do. They’re lovely animals. Did you know that they made a film of Moby Dick
  on the island?
Maya           : Really?
Dina           : Yes, they made the film in 1956. Before 1981, people had been going whaling from
  Madeira for many years. The hunters had been killing about 250 whales a year.
Maya           : They don’t kill whales now, do they?
Dina            : No, they don’t. The ocean around the island is now protected. The only boats that chase
  the whales are the boats for tourists.
Maya           : Do you think that you’ll be seeing a lot of whales?
Dina           : I don’t know. There are not so many whales around the island now, but there are plenty
  of dolphins.
Maya           : It will be nice to see dolphins too, won’t it?
Dina           : Yes, it will!
Maya           : Make sure you take a lot of photographs. You can send them to me on your phone, can’t you?
Dina           : Yes, I can. In ten days’ time, we’ll be comparing photos! You can show me your photos
  of your cousins’ house, and I can show you my photos of the island.
Maya           : That’s a good idea. We can meet at my house.
Reading
  MODERN MEDICINES
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Medicines are amazing, aren’t they? If you have a stomach ache or a cough, youcan visit a doctor and you usually feel well again in a few days. A few hundred years ago, it was different. People who were ill often died, especially children. People did not know what to do when they became ill. They could not control the diseases that killed them. Today, there are new medicines which help people to live healthier lives. Some of these cure diseases completely, while vaccinations can stop people getting the diseases at all.
Before 1980, there was a disease that had killed 35% of the people who got it. It was called smallpox. A few people who had caught the disease did not die, but became blind. It was a terrible disease. Then, after 1980, nobody caught the disease any more. The World Health Organisation (WHO) had been working for many years to give people vaccinations to stop the disease. It had worked.
In the future, there will be more vaccinations and many diseases will not be spreading around the world as rapidly as they do today. The number of people catching serious diseases has already decreased in recent years. However, it won’t be easy to stop all of them. People who caught smallpox could not catch it again, but other diseases can be caught more than once. It is harder to stop these diseases. You could also see when people had smallpox, but other illnesses are harder to see.
People will always be falling ill from some diseases, but the future looks much better, especially for children. Before the year 2000, only about 25% of children had vaccinations that stopped them from catching diseases. Today, 80% of children have vaccinations. WHO say that this has saved the lives of around three million children a year, and they are determined to help even more children in the future. One day, perhaps we will be living in a world without serious diseases. That would be fantastic, wouldn’t it?
Reading
BEING FLEXIBLE
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Your grandparents probably worked in the same job all their lives. However, the way people work today is changing rapidly. It is unlikely that you will find a job and stay in it for the rest of your life. You will need to be flexible. This means being prepared to learn new skills and to adapt to different situations.
It is important to plan for the future, but you need to think flexibly when your plans change. For example, you and your friends plan to travel to a different city by train. You arrive at the station, but your train has broken down. Do you go home, or do you keep calm and think of other options? If you are prepared to be flexible, you might be able to find another way to travel to the city. You can continue your journey if you take a later train or find another form of transport.
At school, students who think flexibly are not frightened of new challenges. They keep calm when things go wrong and dont stop doing something because it is difficult. This will be an advantage when the students finish their education. Many employers now say that being flexible is one of the most important skills they look for in an employee. Businesses do not know what problems they might have in the future. They want employees who will know how to cope with these problems efficiently, and who are happy to face challenges.
Unit 13
Good morning. I want to thank your head teacher for inviting me to speak to you today about using computers without damaging your health. So, I’m here to answer all the questions that you have sent me over the last week.
We all need computers, don’t we? When your head asked me to come here, I wanted to know where the school was. So, I looked on my computer to find it. We all use computers as part of our everyday life, at home, at school and at work. Computers are great, but it‘s important to use them in the right way, and that is what I want to talk about today.
Many of you asked me how long people spent on a computer each day. Well, it is not unusual for adults and children to be on their computers for six or seven hours every day, and this increase in computer use has brought with it problems related to different parts of our bodies: mainly our eyes, backs, and arms.
One of you said that you had pain in your arms after using a computer. You asked me how long the pain would last. Most of the pain we feel after using our computers are temporary and disappear after a rest or a change of activity.
The most common computer-related problems are headaches and pain in our arms, back and neck. The most serious of these is repetitive strain injury, or RSI, which can lead to permanent damage. Another student wanted to know why he was getting RSI. Problems like this are usually caused by sitting in an unnatural position for long periods of time or having your chair in the wrong position. Perhaps the most important way of preventing these problems is to take regular breaks from your computer: at least five minutes every hour. During these breaks, you should move around or do stretching exercises. You should also make sure your desk or table is the right height and the computer screen at the correct angle. You will also find it helpful to have your feet flat on the floor.
Some of you asked me what you could do to prevent damage to your eyes. If you are a regular computer user, you should have your eyes tested once every two years. To avoid eye problems while you are working, blink regularly and focus on things which are further away than the computer screen. Other actions that you can take include keeping the air in the room moist, for example by using plants or a glass of water. This will stop your eyes from becoming dry. Also change the brightness of your screen from time to time and, of course, keep your screen clean.
These are some of the basic rules for avoiding health problems related to computer use. Follow these and you should not experience serious problems.
Reading
SAFETY AT HOME
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One of the most common causes of personal injury is an accident at home, and the two groups most in danger from these injuries are children under five and adults over seventy.
Recently, a group of people were asked where most accidents took place at home. The majority correctly said the kitchen, because this is where most house fires begin. The bathroom is also a danger area, because this is where many older people fall and where some accidents involving electrical equipment happen.
When we asked a safety expert what we could do to prevent accidents at home, he came up with some simple but useful ideas. He pointed out, for example, that we should not leave food cooking in the kitchen. He also recommended a number of other simple things we could do, including turning off and unplugging electrical equipment when it was not in use, and not overloading electrical sockets. He also said that all homes should have smoke alarms.
Finally, we asked him what we should do if a fire started at home. He suggested that all homes should have at least one fire extinguisher and that families should work out a fire escape plan in case the worst happened. He also reminded us that throwing water on a fire, for example on a fire caused by electrical equipment, does not always put it out and can make the situation worse. In these cases, a fire blanket is recommended.
If everyone follows this simple advice, the number of serious injuries caused by accidents at home can be reduced.
Unit 14
Mustafa                   : Did you know, we’re going to read King Solomon’s Mines at school soon?
Hany : Yes, I heard. I’m looking forward to that. And for homework we have to find out about Rider Haggard who wrote the book.
Mustafa : What do you know about him?
Hany : Not much. I know he’s not alive and I think he was English.
Mustafa : Shall we try and find out more?
Hany                : OK. Let’s look on the internet. There must be a Rider Haggard website.
Mustafa : Here he is. Rider Haggard, born 1856, died 1925.
Hany            : So he’s been dead quite a long time. What else does it say?
Mustafa : Well, you were right – he was English – his father was a lawyer and his mother was a poet.
Hany            : When did he start writing?
Mustafa : Wait a minute. OK, it says he wasn’t very good at school so he didn’t apply for university. His father sent him to work in South Africa.
Hany            : Did he stay in South Africa?
Mustafa : Yes, for a few years, then he went back to England, married and had a family.
Hany            : So, when did he start writing?
Mustafa : Well, let’s see. He became a lawyer first, but he didn’t do very well because he was so keen on his writing.
Hany            : What were his books about?
Mustafa : They were adventure stories which took place in Africa and were about explorers discovering ancient African civilizations or looking for diamonds.
Hany            : Was he successful as a writer?
Mustafa : Yes. King Solomon’s Mines, which it took him only six weeks to write, was a bestseller for a year. Hany: What else did he write?
Mustafa : Let’s see. She, about an ancient African queen, and Allan Quatermain are his best known other books.
Hany            : And did he go on working at the same time as being a writer?
Mustafa : Yes, he worked for the British government He helped in the reform of agriculture. He also travelled around the world.
Hany            : I’m interested in learning more about him.
Mustafa : So am I, and I’m really looking forward to reading King Solomon’s Mines.
Hany            : Me too.
Reading
KING SOLOMONS MINES

An Englishman, Sir Henry Curtis, is in Africa looking for his brother who has gone missing while looking for King Solomon’s Mines. Alan Quatermain, an adventurer and hunter who has a map of the mines, agrees to help Sir Henry look for his brother. A young African, Umbopa, travels with them as their servant.
When they walk across a desert, the group almost die of thirst, but eventually reach mountains. They cross the mountains into Kukuanaland, a country in a remote valley. Soldiers from the country’s army capture Sir Henry’s group and are going to kill them, but suddenly become afraid when one of the Englishmen behaves strangely. Soon the Kukuanas believe that the men have strange and powerful forces.
The Englishmen are taken to King Twala, a cruel, violent man who kills anyone who opposes him. To become king, he killed his brother and sent his brother’s wife and son Ignosi into the desert to die. The servant Umbopa now tells the Englishmen that he is really Ignosi. Then, with his own soldiers and his English friends, he attacks the king’s army. In the battle that follows, Twala is killed. Then, one of the old king’s advisers, Gagool, takes the group to King Solomon’s Mines, where they find rooms full of gold and diamonds. While they are looking at the treasure, Gagool escapes and traps the Englishmen in the mine without food or water. Fortunately, after a few days, they manage to get
out of the mine, taking enough diamonds to make them rich.
The Englishmen say goodbye to the new King Ignosi and start their journey home. On their way, they stop at an oasis, where they find Sir Henry’s brother.
Unit 15
Taha: Hi, Imad. Could I ask your advice about something?
Imad: Sure, how can I help?
Taha: Well, I’ve just joined an online discussion group and I’m not sure what the rules are.
Imad: What’s the subject of the group?
Taha: Birds.
Imad: Actually, it doesn’t really matter what the subject is. If you join any discussion group, the rules are more or less the same. Probably the most important rule is that you must always be polite. You can disagree with other people, but you must not be rude or unpleasant to them.
Taha: That’s the same as when you’re actually with people. If I was with people I didn’t know very well, I would never be rude to them.
Imad: Yes, of course. Another rule is that you shouldn’t try to advertise or sell things to members of the group.
Taha: That’s OK. I’ve got nothing to sell. If I contact the group, I’ll only tell people about birds that I’ve seen, or ask them questions about birds.
Imad: What else? Remember to type carefully and don’t write long messages. What language does the group use?
Taha: It’s an international group, so we use English.
Imad: Another thing to remember is that your messages are public, which means that anyone can read them: your family, your friends, even your teacher.
Taha: Oh yes, I hadn’t thought about that.
Imad Yes, you must be careful not to make anyone upset. And another thing: you should always stick to the subject.
Taha: That’s OK; I only want to write about birds.
Imad There’s probably a Help page where you can ask other members questions if you aren’t sure about anything. And if you write anything that you shouldn’t, the owner of the group may email you to remind you about the rules.
Taha: I didn’t realise that discussion groups had owners.
Imad: Most of them do. It can be quite an important job if it’s a busy group and there are a lot of members. Sometimes they exclude people from the group if they break the rules.
Imad I’m sure that I won’t break any rules. But anyway, thanks a lot, that’s really helpful advice.
Taha: That’s OK. If I had known that you were joining the discussion group, I would have joined too. I love birds!
Imad: It’s not too late. You can join now!
Reading
YOUNG PEOPLE AND TECHNOLOGY

If you had asked young people 20 years ago how they spent their free time, they would probably have said that they watched television and videos, listened to music on cassette players or spent time with their friends.
If you asked the same question today, the answers would be very different. Although we still watch television, there are many more channels than there were in the past, and DVDs have replaced videos. We now listen to CDs, but more of us are downloading music and films from the internet. We can listen to or watch these on computers or mobile phones.
Of course, we still spend time with our friends, but more of our conversations with them are by text message or through online social networking sites like Face book and Twitter. These are becoming more popular as ways of communicating with friends and of making new friends. Some people are spending more time chatting to their virtual friends than to their real friends.
There is no doubt that modern technology allows us to communicate with many more people than we could in the past, but there are disadvantages. Researchers have found that some people are losing touch with their real friends and becoming addicted to their mobile phones, to their computers and to social networking sites. If they cannot use their phones and computers, some people become nervous and irritable.
And if more people become addicted to their phones, they will find it hard to make real friends.
Review E
Presenter: Good afternoon and welcome to "Ask the Experts", the programme in which you can email your questions to a group of professionals. Our subject today is air travel and safety, and our experts are: Hazem Thabet, a travel writer; Ola Latif, a researcher into air safety; and Michael Halsway, a retired pilot. Our first email was from Samir in Alexandria. He wanted to know how safe flying was these days. Hazem, would you like to answer that question?
Hazem: Yes, certainly. Well, the first thing to say is that flying is still one of the safest forms of transport. The most dangerous form of transport is travelling by car. So, in 2015, 136 people died in air accidents around the world, while around 38,000 people died in road accidents just in the
USA. Fortunately, flying is actually becoming safer every year.
Ola Latif: Perhaps I could say something to Samir here. One in five people die of heart disease; one in a hundred people die in a road accident. But only one in 20,000 people die in an air accident.
Presenter: Thank you, Ola. Now let’s move on to our second email from Sara. Sara has never flown before and is flying from Cairo to Aswan tomorrow. She wanted to know why she felt so nervous. She also asked what would happen if there was a storm.
Presenter: Michael, could you suggest what Sara should do to stop her feeling nervous?
Michael: First of all, if it’s her first flight, I’m not surprised that she’s feeling nervous – it would be unnatural if you weren’t. If you have bad weather, it might make your flight a little uncomfortable, but it won’t usually be the cause of an accident. Secondly, if you listen to what the plane crew say, you’ll be fine. Plane crews are very well trained and will look after you during the flight. They’ll tell you what’s happening, point out where things are and so on.
Presenter: Thank you very much. I’m sure that Sara will have more confidence and can look forward to going on her first flight now. We have time for one more email – from Yasser. Yasser said that he knew flying was safe, but he still felt nervous every time he got on a plane. He asked what he could do about feeling nervous.
Hazem: Well, if I stopped flying every time I felt nervous, I would never get on a plane. I go on 50 to 60 flights every year and I always get nervous before flying! It’s a completely normal feeling because it’s not natural for humans to fly. What I do is make sure I have a good book and a newspaper to read and some of my favourite music to listen to. I might be nervous for the first five minutes of a flight, but eventually, everything’s fine.
Presenter: Thanks, Hazem. Let’s hope you find that useful, Yasser. There’s nothing unusual about being nervous – but make sure you take plenty of things to do on your flight. I’m afraid that’s all we have time for today, so I hope you enjoyed our discussion and thanks to my guests and to our listeners.
Reading
SHE

  Horace Holly, a Cambridge University professor, agrees to help a younger man, Leo Vincey, find out more about Vincey’s ancestors. They discover some instructions written on an ancient pot which was left to Vincey when his father died. The instructions lead them to a remote part of the east coast of Africa.
  After a long journey, they meet Alesha, a beautiful and powerful woman who is loved by her people. But her people also fear her because they know she will punish anyone who she dislikes or who disagrees with her.
  Holly and Vincey discover something very strange about Alesha: many years earlier, she walked through a special fire which stopped her from growing old. More than 2,000 years before, she became furious with her husband, Kallikrates, who then disappeared. She is now waiting for him to return.
  As soon as she sees Leo Vincey, she believes he is Kallikrates who has come back to her. She tries to make Leo Vincey walk through the special fire so that he, too, will never grow old. When Vincey does not believe the story, Alesha walks through the fire for a second time to show him what will happen. Suddenly, Alesha changes and becomes her true age – over 2,000 years old.
Reading
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS

There is a saying about new ideas: Necessity is the mother of invention. This means that if we need to do something, someone will invent a way to do it.
In Asia in 8000 BCE, the wheel was invented because people wanted to transport heavy goods more easily. Over 9,000 years later, steam engines were invented to power machines which were able to produce things more quickly than people could. Electricity also changed the way we lived, by powering thousands of machines. Electric lights invented by Thomas Edison in the 1870s, lit peoples homes and allowed factories to produce goods at night. The jet engine (developed in the 1920s by Frank Whittle) made it possible to travel easily by air.
In the last 25 years, digital technology has changed our lives. We now use digital technology to communicate with each other, to listen to music and to take photographs. The World Wide Web, invented in 1989 by the computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee, has made it easy to find information from anywhere in the world.
There are problems with technology. Some people spend too long on the internet and feel depressed if they cannot use it. We also need to be careful about privacy when we put information online. However, technology gives us all opportunities.
Today, there are new situations which need new inventions. Scientists are now working to solve the energy problem by using power from the sun and the wind. Past inventions have changed our world and the way we live. Future inventions will continue to change it.
Unit 16
Voice: Speaker one.
Man 1: I’m here for a week with my wife and children. I’ve wanted to come here since I learnt about Egypt at school. We’re staying near Cairo and while we’re here we’re going to see the Pyramids at Giza, the Great Sphinx and other ancient sites. My children have to study ancient history at school next year, so this trip will be very interesting for them. We must buy souvenirs for our friends while we’re here, and the children are hoping to spend a day or two on the beach
Voice: Speaker two.
Man 2: I’m the manager of a travel agency in Alexandria. I arrange accommodation and trips for foreign visitors to Egypt. Of course, some times of the year are busier than others for us. There are parts of the year when my staff and I have to work twelve hours a day for six days a week, then other times are quieter, which means that we don’t have to work such long hours. I enjoy my job – especially when customers say they have enjoyed the trips we’ve organised. Sometimes I pretend to be a tourist and go on the trips myself, because we must always make sure that the customers are getting value for money. It is essential for our reputation that we look after tourists well. We mustn’t forget that tourism is very important for Egypt.
Voice: Speaker three.
Woman: I’m here with my sister – we’re sailing down the Nile from Luxor to Aswan. It’s been a fantastic journey so far. The views from the boat are wonderful – we’ve learnt a lot about the life and culture of Egyptian people. We’ve sailed past the temples of Edfu and Kom Ombo. We’re finding it very interesting, but also relaxing. It’s a real change from our life in London. For example, we don’t need to get up or go to bed at particular times – we can just take it easy. We have to be back in Cairo on Friday in time to catch our flight back to England.

Reading
TOURISM TODAY

  People have visited Egypt ever since Greek and Roman times, but modern tourism began when an Englishman, Thomas Cook, arranged the first package tour in 1841. Package tours are holidays arranged by a travel company which include travel, accommodation and sometimes food for a fixed price.
Mass tourism first became popular in the 1960s, when air travel became cheaper, and today tourism is a huge business. Millions of tourists are carried by air to destinations all over the world. Countries on the Mediterranean coast attract millions of tourists every summer!
Countries make a lot of money out of tourism, but there are also disadvantages. For example, about one hundred people visit Notre Dame cathedral in Paris every minute. Their feet wear away the stone floors. The buses waiting for the tourists produce pollution that damages the outside of the building.
During the tourist season, many of the world’s great cities are very difficult to live in. Try shopping in Prague or Florence in the middle of summer! Tourists with cameras block your way. Shopping is impossible!
For Egypt, tourism is the second most important earner of foreign currency after oil. The tourist industry employs thousands of people such as travel agents, hotel staff and building workers. If more tourists visit in the future, new hotels and roads will have to be built and new parks and resorts will need to be planned.
Five-star hotel opening next summer
A large international hotel group has plans to open a five-star hotel on the outskirts of our town next summer. The future manager of the new hotel is now the manager of a small hotel in Greece, but it is believed that between one and two hundred new staff will be needed when the hotel opens. There will be work for accountants, managers, trained cooks, waiters and cleaners.
The new hotel is expected to attract thousands of foreign tourists to our town every year.
a What would you think if you read this news story about your local area?
a I would think that there would be many more jobs for people, and many more tourists visiting.
b Which groups of people would welcome this news? Why?
b Local shops and restaurant owners would welcome the news because they would have more customers.
c Which groups might not be very happy about the new hotel? Why?
c Environmental groups might worry about the effect on the local area. Local people who own smaller hotels might not be happy because people might prefer the new hotel.
d What kinds of foreign tourists do you think would stay in this hotel?
d They would be rich/wealthy because it’s a five-star hotel.
Unit 17
Mariam : Have you seen the film, The Jungle Book? It’s about a boy who grows up in the jungle.
Soha : I’ve heard of it, but I haven’t seen it.
Mariam : It’s a really good story. It was written by an English writer called Rudyard Kipling. I liked the film so much that I decided to read a book about the author. He had an interesting life and wrote children’s books, books for adults and poems.
Soha : When did he live?
Mariam : He was born in India in 1865.
Soha: Did Kipling like India?
Mariam : Yes. Growing up in India, he developed a love of the markets and Indian people.
Soha : Where did he go to school?
Mariam : He went to school in England and became the editor of the school newspaper.
Soha : When did he start to write books?
Mariam : After he returned to India. He worked for a local newspaper, often thinking of stories in the evening.
Soha : When did he write The Jungle Book?
Mariam : That was a few years later. Kipling married an American woman and they built a large house in the American countryside. He wrote The Jungle Book there in 1894, a year after their first daughter, Josephine, was born. They then had a second daughter and a son. Kipling loved children, and children loved his books!
Soha : Did he stay in America?
Mariam : No. The family decided to return to England in 1896. They later lived in an old house in England with a big garden. Kipling enjoyed writing there. Writing stories and poems for adults and children, he became very successful.
Soha : Which is his most famous poem?
Mariam : It’s a poem called "If".
Soha : What is it about?
Mariam : The speaker in the poem teaches his son what to do and what not to do to become a successful person. Reading the poem, you feel that you want to do well at everything! It’s very inspiring! Shall I read you my favourite part?
Soha : Yes, please.
Mariam : "If you can fill the unforgiving minute with sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it!” This means that you should use your time well. If you do this, you can achieve anything.
Soha : I’d like to read all of the poem!
This poem is didactic من الشعر التعليمي (it teaches a lesson). The father teaches his son how to be perfect. In this poem, the poet is advising his son. He is teaching him how to face life which is full of good and evil شر , fortune and misfortune سوء الحظ.
A father advises his son to prepare himself to face life with its good and bad sides. If the son follows his father's advice, he will own the world and everything in it. Moreover he will be a man in the full sense of the word.
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too:
- In the first and second lines the father is asking his son to be calm and stable and never be angry even when people around him are getting angry.
- In the third and fourth lines the son is asked to have self-confidence ثقة بالنفس even when all people doubt him. Son should listen to other people's criticism نقد . It may be true and he can reform يصلح himself.
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise;
- In the first and second lines, Son is advised to be patient صبور .The father wants his son to be honest أمين . He shouldn’t be a liar even if people lie to him.
- In the third and fourth lines, he wants his son to have a forgiving nature طبيعة متسامحة : he shouldn’t hate those who hate him. He also advises his son to be humble متواضع ; not to be very proud of مغرور/ فخور himself.
If you can dream – and not make dreams your master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your aim,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same
- In the first and second lines, The father wants his son to be realistic واقعي and not to live in a dreamy world. He should act (work – apply his thoughts) instead of dreaming.
- In the third and fourth lines, the father says to his son that life imposes تفرض different circumstances of success and failure which contradict one's wishes and hopes. So he advises his son to deal with failure as well as success. Success shouldn’t turn his head يذهل عقله (make him too happy) and failure shouldn’t let him down يحبطه .
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build’em up with worn-out tools;
- In the first and second lines, Son is asked to bear يتحمل the wicked people who might change his true words to deceive يخدع him.
- In the third and fourth lines, Son should never give in لا يستسلم . He should never be disappointed يحبط . He has to start again if he loses.
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings – nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count on you, but none too much:
- In the first and second lines, the poet wants his son to know how to deal with all kinds of people, the rich and the poor, the noble and the common.
- In the third and fourth lines, he advises his son to take care of his loving friends as well as his enemies. Sometimes appearance deceives us. He warned him against involving with people too much. He should keep limits in dealing with people. He believes that (Good fences make neighbours) صباح الخير يا جارى أنت في حالك و أنا في حالي
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And – which is more – you’ll be a Man, my son!
- In the first and second lines, Son shouldn’t waste his time hating anyone.
- In the third and fourth lines, the poet gives the result of following his advice.
If son follows his father's advice, he will be successful. He will own the whole world besides being a man of morals and principles.
Unit 18
Nadia           : The problems in these photos are quite worrying, aren’t they, Azza?
Azza           : Yes, but they are all problems we can solve.
Nadia           : I suppose so, but we’ll only succeed if all the countries of the world work together.
Azza           : That’s right. Countries can’t do much on their own.
Nadia           : So what about pollution from traffic in cities?
Azza           : Well, there are lots of things we could do. We could ban cars from cities and make people use public transport – you know, trains or buses.
Nadia           : There are some places where people can’t use their cars every day of the week. For example, if your car number plate ends in 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8, you can only drive it in your city on Mondays, Wednesdays or Fridays.
Azza           : That’s a really good idea. If every city in the world did that, we could cut traffic pollution by fifty per cent.
Nadia           : And that would help reduce global warming and climate change, wouldn’t it?
Azza           : Yes. The other thing we could do is reduce our dependence on fuels like gas and oil, by increasing our use of energy from wind, waves and the sun.
Nadia           : But can we do that before we run out of oil?
Azza           : Good question. I don’t know, but there are already cars which can use electricity – that will reduce the demand for oil.
Nadia           : Personally, I think hunger is the worst problem. I mean, it’s terrible that some people don’t have enough food to eat.
Azza           : I agree, but there’s actually plenty of food in the world. We can feed everyone.
Nadia           : So we could end world hunger if we thought it was important enough.
Azza           : I think so, yes.
Reading
HOW HOT CAN THE EARTH GET?

Most people now accept the fact that the worlds climate is changing. But why is this happening and what can we do about it?
Scientists believe that there are a number of natural reasons for climate change. One could be changes in how much heat we get from the sun. Another could be volcanoes. When a volcano erupts, it sends dust into the atmosphere. This stops some of the suns light and can make our climate cooler.
We have also been adding gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases stop heat escaping, which increases the earths temperature. This is called the greenhouse effect. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing mainly because we burn fuels such as oil and gas. The fact that we continue to destroy the rainforests (which take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen) makes the situation worse. If the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continues to increase, scientists believe that by 2050, the temperature of the earths surface could go up by 2°C.
How will global warming affect the world? It is now known that the ice at the Arctic and the Antarctic is melting. If this continues, sea levels will rise and some parts of the world will be flooded, making many people homeless.
So what can be done? Countries must stop destroying the rainforests and produce less carbon dioxide. And, as individuals, we must all reduce the carbon dioxide that we produce. This can be done by people using cars only when they have to or by turning down air conditioning in the summer.
Review F
Narrator: Conversation one.
Mr. Stewart           : We should decide where to go on holiday next summer.
Mrs. Stewart           : I know, I hope we haven’t left it too late. Any ideas?
Mr. Stewart           : We’ve always wanted to go to Egypt. Why don’t we go there?
Mrs. Stewart           : You’re right, but isn’t Egypt very hot? I’d prefer somewhere cooler.
Mr. Stewart           : It depends where and when you go. It’s usually cooler on the coast and it’s probably better to go in the spring – April or May.
Mrs. Stewart           : But can you have time off work in the spring?
Mr. Stewart           : I can ask my manager next week. I’m sure it will be OK. Most of the staff prefer totake their holidays in the summer.
Mrs. Stewart           : We could stay in Alexandria. People say it has a lovely climate. Shall we try and find a package tour? They’re usually cheaper. Mr. Stewart: We could, but I’d rather book our own flight and hotel.
Mrs. Stewart           : OK, I don’t mind.
Mr. Stewart           : That’s good – we agree. We’ll have a week in Alexandria in May.
Narrator: Conversation two.
Mrs. Ibrahim           : I’d love to have a holiday in England.
Mr. Ibrahim           : So would I. It’s years since we’ve been to England.
Mrs. Ibrahim           : And the children have never been. They would love London.
Mr. Ibrahim           : I’ll have to check my work diary to see what the best time would be. I think June or July is probably the best time.
Mrs. Ibrahim           : We’d have to wait until July – the children are still at school in June – so we couldn’t go then. And the prices are higher in July because of the increased demand.
Mr. Ibrahim           : That’s OK – we can afford to go for a week in July.
Mrs. Ibrahim           : Great – I’ll look on the internet and book a flight and a hotel. I can’t wait. I’ll tell the children.
Reading
VISITING BHUTAN

  Travelling to the worlds highest mountains is always exciting. For this reason, many people want to visit the small country of Bhutan in the Himalayas. However, the King of Bhutan does not want the country to be full of tourists. He wants the country to keep its traditional culture.
This means that the people in Bhutan have to wear traditional clothes when they go to work, and that tourists cannot go to some places in the country without special permission. Buildings have to be built in a traditional way, too.
How does the King stop many visitors coming to his country? Tourists cannot usually visit Bhutan on their own. They must visit as part of a tour group. They also need to pay at least $200 a day during their visit. Some of this is for their accommodation, a tour guide and transport. The Bhutan government uses some of the money to pay for schools, hospitals and to help the poor.
Visiting Bhutan is expensive, so why do tourists want to visit? There are many beautiful temples and interesting towns. However, most people visit to walk in the mountains. There are bears and tigers in the high mountains. In the south of the country, there are elephants and monkeys and many kinds of birds.
Bhutan is not an easy country to visit and it is very expensive for tourists. Because it is between mountains, its airport is one of the most dangerous in the world. However, people who go to Bhutan always say it is an amazing place.
Reading
LIFELONG LEARNING

If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds worth of distance run Yours is the Earth and everything thats in it.
In the poem If, Rudyard Kipling says that you can be successful if you can use your time well. For students, this means working hard at school. But you should continue to use your time well throughout your life.
Lifelong learning can mean finding out about many different things, for example, sports, science, art and crafts, history and food. It is believed that lifelong learning gives people more active minds and more confidence to face the future. Because the world is always changing, we need to learn new skills all the time so that we can work with these changes. Employers want employees who are keen to learn more skills.
Some companies send their employees on special courses, for example, to learn a new language. This might mean doing a course after work, so you will need to be motivated to complete it. However, if you do it, you will have better opportunities in the future.
Some of the most successful people teach themselves new skills. If a person wants to work in computing, for example, they can find information on the internet. They can talk to people who already work in computing or they can pay to go on computing courses. They will learn about all the latest developments. This might help them to find work, or help them to be promoted.

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