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الوحدة العاشرة لغة انجليزية الصف الثاني الثانوي الترم الثانيunit 10

الخط



 unit 10


organic farming
الزراعة العضوية
remove
يزيــــل
normal
عادي - طبيعي
agriculture
الزراعـــــة
describe
يصـــف
amount
كميـــــــة
agricultural
زراعــــي
description
وصـــف
quantity
كميـــــــة
advantage
ميـــــــزة
wild plants
نباتات بريـــة
plenty of
كثير من
disadvantage
عيـــــب
ingredients
مقاديــــــر
regularly

بانتظام
pesticide
مبيد للآفـــات
quality
جـــــــوْدة
sufficient
كاف
poisonous
ســـــام
ripen
ينضج
frequently
مرارا و تكراراً
good for
مفيـــد لـ
ripe
ناضـــج
fats
دهـــــــون
soil
تربة زراعية
rot
يتعفـــــن
butter
زبــــــده
organic
عضــــوي
decay
يتعفـــــن
instructions
تعليمات
non-organic
غير عضوي
starve
يموت جوعا
make sure
يتأكــــــد
structure
تركيب - بناء
starvation
المجاعــــة
lamb
لحم ضاني
improve
يحســــن
hunter
صيـاد
lentils
عــــدس
modify
يعـــدل
nuts
مكسرات
delicious
لذيـــذ
disease
مـــــرض
roots
جـــذور
die of
يموت بـ
method
أسلوب - طريقة
collect
يجمـــع
living things
كائنات حية
chemicals
مواد كيميائية
over time
بمرور الوقت
reference books
مَــــرَاجِع
harmful to
ضـــار بـ
notice
يلاحــــظ
label
بطاقة بيانات
environment
البيئـــة
seeds
بـــذور
type : sort : kind
نـــــوع
substance
مـــــــادة
save
يدخـــر
production
إنتــــــاج
insect
حشــــرة
genes
جينات
guarantee
يضمــــــــن
damage
يتلف - تلف
genetic
جينـــــي
cut down
يقلــــــــل
spray
يرش - رذاذ
genetics
علم الوراثـــة
farm
يزرع / مزرعة
liquid
سائــــل
genetically
جينيــــــا
modern science
العلم الحديث
container
وعاء - اناء
laboratory
معمــــــل
bread
خبــــز
stream
تدفق سيل
protect
يحمـــي
cheese
جبنــــة
concerned
مهتـــــــم
destroy
يدمــــر
pasta
معكرونة - عجائن
continuously
باستمرار
natural
طبيعــــي
deal with
يتعامل مع
subject
موضــــوع
unnatural
غير طبيعــــي
safe
آمــــــــن
statement
جملة خبرية
fear
يخاف - خوف
safety
سلامـــة - أمان
feed
يطعـــم
surprisingly
من المدهش
remote areas
أماكن نائيـــة
cost
يتكلف - تكلفة
contain
يحتوي علي
quality
جودة - نوعيـــة
add
يضيــــف
cupboard
دولاب
diet
نظام غذائي
Definitions
fertilizer
something that you put on the soil to help plants to grow
سماد التربة
genetically modified
describes crops that have been scientifically changed to improve them
معدل وراثيا
organic
produced without chemicals that are harmful to the environment
عضــــــوي
pesticide
a chemical that is used to kill insects that damage crops
مبيد آفات
poisonous
describes something that will kill or hurt someone if they eat or drink it
ســـــام
spray
to make liquid come out of a container in very small drops
يرش - رذاذ
genetic engineering
the science of changing the genes of a living thing to improve it
هندسة وراثية
ingredient
something we use to make a kind of food
عنصر - مكون
method
a way of doing something
طريقـــــة
quality
how good or bad something is
جودة - سمة
rot
decay
يتعفن
ripen
become ready to eat
ينضــــج
starvation
when someone becomes ill because they do not have enough to eat
مجاعــــــة
Expressions
make money
يربـــح مالا
make genetic modification
يُحْــدِث تعديلا جينيا
worry about
ينتابه القلق بشأن
make the food rot / go rotten
يجعل الطعام فاسدا
bring new diseases
تجلب أمراض جديدة
put genes into plants
يضع جينات في النباتات
do ….sb./ sth. …. harm
يسبب ضرر لـ ......
genetically modified
معدل جينيا
do / cause damage to….
يسبب ضرر لـ ......
high - yield crops
محاصيل عالية الإنتاجية
remote areas
أماكن نائية - بعيدة
rich in
غني بـ
get worse
يزداد سوءا
long - term changes
تغييرات على المدى البعيد
high quality plants
نباتات عالية الجودة
spray………. with
يرش باستخدام
take exams
يتقدم لامتحان
in favour of
مؤيد لـ
bad for
for
ضـــــار بـ
experiment on / with
يجري تجربة علي
good for
مفيـــــد لـ
disease resistant
مقاوم للمرض
Derivatives
Verb
Noun
Adjective
modify
يعدل
modification
تعديل
modified
معدل
resist
يقاوم
resistance
مقاومــــة
resistant
مقاوم
destroy
يدمــــر
destruction

تدميـــر
destructive

مدمـــــر
protect
يقي - يحمي
protection
وقاية - حماية
protective
واقي
rot
يتعفن
rot / rotting
فساد - تعفن
rotten
فاسد - متعفن
ripen
ينضج
ripeness

النضج - النضوج
ripe
ناضج
starve
يموت جوعا
starvation
مجاعـــة
starving
جائع - يكاد يموت جوعا
fertilize
يسمد - يخصب
fertilizer
سمــــاد
fertile
خصــب
harm
يضر - يؤذي
harm
ضرر - أذي
harmful
ضار - مؤذي
resist
يقاوم
resistance
مقاومــــــة
resistant to
مقاوم لـــ


1- who's = who is + n. / v.ing / adj.
- Leila is the student who's working on this project with me.
- My friend, who's a pilot, has always loved flying.
- who's = who has + PP.
- The man, who's done a lot of good work, will be given a reward.
- whose               ضمير وصل يدل علي الملكية                       - That is the boy whose sister is a teacher.
- My brother, whose friend is a French engineer, is going to work in France.
  Whose                      لمن؟ (تسأل عن الملكية)                      - Whose bag is that? It is yours?
2- soil             تربة                       - These plants only grow in a muddy soil.
  ground أرض (خارج المنزل)                      - Don't sit on the ground. You'll get wet.
  floor أرضية (المنزل) / طابق / دور                      - He lives in a flat on the second floor.
3- feed (fed/ fed)                       يُطعِم                      - Don't forget to feed the dog.
  eat (ate / eaten)                       يأكل                          - We usually eat at about 7 o'clock.
3- ripe (adj.)                                  ناضج                      - You can eat this fruit. It’s ripe.
  ripen (v)                                   ينضج                      - Tomatoes need some time to ripen.
4- rot / rotted / rotted (v): يتعفّن / يَفْسد                      - Too many sweets will rot your teeth.
rotten (adj.)                       نَتِن/ فاسد                      - Don’t buy rotten fruit.
5- taste (v.)                                  يتذوق                       - Taste this and see if it's too salty.
  taste (n.) حاسة التذوق / طعم / مَذاق / ذوق
  - He has got flu, so he lost his sense of taste. - That cake has a nice taste.
  tasty (adj.): لذيذ المَذاق            - They serve very tasty dishes here.
  tasteful (adj.): حَسَنُ الذَّوْق            - They bought tasteful furniture.
6- (and so) / (and) neither:
…….جملة مثبتة………… (and) so + فعل مساعد + فاعل و كذلك
  - Noha speaks English. Rania speaks English.               - Noha speaks English and so does Rania.
  - Ali bought a mobile. I bought a mobile.               - Ali bought a mobile and so did I.
  - Ali can swim. I can swim.               - Ali can swim andso can I.
……..…. جملة منفية………… (and) neither + فعل مساعد + فاعل                      و لا
  - Ali can't swim. I can't swim.               - Ali can't swim and neither can I.
  - Noha doesn't play tennis. I don't play tennis.               - Noha doesn't play tennis and neither do I.
7- stop + مفعول + v. + ing: يمنع ..... من            - They have built a fence سور to stop the dog getting out.
8- by + v. + ing                       بواسطة                      - He lost weight by taking more exercise.
9- make + object مفعول + مصدر: يجبر / يجعل           - The teacher made us rewrite the lesson.
في حالة المبنى للمجهول نستخدم to قبل المصدر.       موقع ذاكرلي انجلش www.zakerlyenglish.com
      - We were made to rewrite the lesson.
10- save                                  يوفر           - I have saved some money to buy her a present.
  reserve                                  يحجز           - We have reserved a room.
11- hope                                                       - I hope he passes / will pass the test.
  hope + to + inf.                                            - I hope to win the first prize.
12- limit                                   حد           - You mustn't exceed the speed limit. It is against the law.
  border                       حد بين دولتين                                 
- There is no problem between Egypt and The Sudan on borders.
  edge                       حافة الشيء           - He put the cup at the edge of the table.
13- like                                  مثل           - She is not like her sister. = She is different from her sister.
  look like                                  يشبه           - He looks like his brother.
  alike = like each other            متشابــــه           - He and his brother are alike.
  unlike                       علي العكس من           - Unlike his brother, he is very tall.
14- affect                                  يؤثـر علـى           - Smoking affects health badly.
  effect                                  تأثيـر           - Smoking has a bad effect on health.
15- pesticide                                  مبيد آفات           - I encourage vegetables grown without using pesticides.
  herbicide                                 مبيد أعشاب           - The use of herbicides in Egypt was effective.
  insecticide                      مبيد حشري           - The use of insecticide at homes should be reduced.
16- spray                                  يرش            - Helen sprayed the cleaning product on the windows.
  spread                      ينشر- ينتشر                      - The virus spread through the school.
17- make + مفعول + مصدر            يجعــــــل           - I made Ali change his mind.
  لاحظ بناء الجملة للمجهول في هذة الجملة - Ali was made to change his mind.
  make + مفعول + صفــة            يجعــــــل           - The news made us happy.
  cause + مفعول + to مصدر            يجعــــــل           - I caused Ali to change his mind.
18- 'd rather .. مصدر .... than.... مصدر ....                                                                  يفضل........ علي....
- I'd rather sleep early than watch a movie on Tv.
19- GM crops : genetically modified crops                                                       محاصيل معدلة وراثيا


Giving advice and instructions
- Eat (meat) regularly. It has lots of (protein).                                 تناوَل (اللحم) بانتظام. ففيها الكثير من (البروتين)
- Eat meat regularly. It has lots of protein, but don’t eat it every day.
- Make sure that you eat plenty of (cheese and milk). They have …...
 تأكد من تناول الكثير من ( الجبن و اللبن) فهي تحتوي علي......
- Make sure that you eat plenty of fish. It has a lot of protein.
- You need …..…, but don’t eat too much.                                 أنت بحاجة إلي ........, و لكن لا تتناول منها الكثير
- You need pasta and bread for carbohydrate, but don’t eat too much of them.
- You mustn’t eat too much …..… . It’s bad for you.           يجب ألا تتناول الكثير من ....... . فهو ضار بالنسبة لك
- You mustn’t eat too much cheese or butter. They have a lot of fat. Fat is bad for you.
Examples:
* Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
1- One of your friends eats food with too much fat in it. What do you say to him or her?
  - You mustn’t eat too much fat. It’s bad for you.
2- A friend who has been ill asks for advice about food. Suggest fruit.
  - Eat more fruit. It is good for you.
3- One of your friends says that he/she is always tired. You think he/she needs more exercise.
  - You need to get more exercise.
4- A friend of yours has poor teeth. Tell him/her to drink milk regularly.
  - Make sure that you drink milk regularly


1- Which plant seeds did the early farmers save?      - They saved the seeds of the best plants.
2- What did they use these seeds for?                   - They used these to plant/grow food.
3- How can scientists change what plants or animals are like?
- They can change what plants or animals are like by modifying their genes. / They can put genes into plants and animals in their laboratories.
4- How can scientists protect people from starvation?
- They can develop crops that are not destroyed by insects or diseases.
5- How do you think that early farmers chose where to live?
- They chose places where food was easy to grow, for example near water.
6- Are you worried about what may happen in the future because of genetic engineering? Why / Why not?
- I’m not worried because I think that scientists will find a way of dealing with any new problems.
7- If you had known that some of your food already contained genetically modified ingredients, would you have eaten it? Why / Why not?
- No, I wouldn't because it may be harmful to my health.
8- How has modern science changed the way that farmers protect their crops from insects and
diseases?
- It has genetically modified the crops which are not affected by the diseases and insects in the same way as they were before.
9- Do you think that genetic engineering can improve agriculture?
- Yes , I do. Scientists can modify the genes so that fruit and vegetables aren’t damaged by the diseases that kill other plants.
10- Should scientists modify our food? Why / Why not?
- I think that they should, but they must guarantee that the modified food is safe.
- I think that they shouldn’t because we don’t know what damage we may cause in the future.
11- Would you eat genetically modified foods?
- No , because they are unnatural and they may bring new diseases
- Yes , because we ate them for many years but they didn’t us any harm .
12- Why do you think that people are afraid of genetic engineering ?
- They fear that genetic engineering may bring new diseases in the future.
13- What other uses do you think that there will be for GM technology in the future?
- It could be used to protect people from different diseases by modifying their genes. It could be used to protect all sorts of animals and plants.

Reported Speech الكلام الغير مباشر
- الكلام المباشر : هو الكلام الذي يخرج من فم قائله دون تعديل أو حذف أو إضافة
- Hala said; "I've passed my exams"
- Ola said to the class: “I’ll give a talk about meat today.”
و لكن هذا الكلام له أكثر من معني و يتسم بالغموض و لذلك الأفضل منه هو الكلام الغير مباشر
-الكلام الغير مباشر: هو نفس معني الكلام المباشر و لكن بصورة أوضح
- Hala said that she had passed her.
- Ola told the class that she would give a talk about meat on that day.
و لكــــــــــي نحول الجملة من المباشر إلي غير المباشر نتبع الخطوات التالية
1- نحذف علامات التنصيص ونستخدم (that) أذا كانت الجملة خبرية ويمكن أن تحذف.
2- نحول الضمائر حسب المتكلم و المخاطب كما يلي:
2 - نغير الأزمنة إذا كان الكلام خارج الأقواس ماضي كما يلي
Direct
Indirect
Direct
Indirect
cook / cooks
cooked
will
would
cooked
cooked/had cooked
shall
would
is / are cooking
was/were cooking
may
might
have / has cooked
had cooked
can
could
- لا نغير الأزمنة في الحالات التالية موقع ذاكرلي انجلش www.zakerlyenglish.com

1 - لا نغير الأزمنة إذا كان فعل القول في المضارع أو المستقبل
-She says, “I don’t believe this story.” - She says she doesn’t believe that story.
2- لا نغير الأزمنة إذا كانت الجملة تعبر عن حقيقة
- She said, “If water freezes, it changes into ice. - She said that if water freezes, it changes ….
3- لا نغير الأزمنة إذا كانت الجملة قيلت منذ فترة وجيزة ويدل علي ذلك كلمات مثل
( now / just now / a moment ago / a minute ago / a short time ago / recently …. )
- He said just now, “I have already done the home work.” - He said just now he has already ……
4- في حالة وجود (if) الشرطية يتغير الزمن في الحالة الأولى فقط
- He said, “If it is fine, I’ll go for a swim.” - He said if it were fine, he would go for a swim.
5- يمكن ألا نغيــــــــر الأزمنـــــــــــــــة عندما يكون الكلام المباشر حقيقي و مناسب في لحظة الكلام.
- “I’m two metres tall,” he said                                      - He said he is two metres tall.
        - He said he was two metres tall.
6- الأفعال و التعبيرات الآتية تظل كما هي بدون تغييرwould / should / could / might / used to/ ought to / would rather / had better / would like
- He said to me, “I’d like to go to the club.”                     - He told me he’d like to go to the club.
 هناك ظروف خاصة بالمكان أو الزمان تتغير في غير المباشر كما يلي ( هــــــــــــــام للغايـــــــــة )
Direct
Indirect
Direct
Indirect
now
then
tonight
that night
this
that
today
that day
these
those
yet
by then
here
there
tomorrow
the day after
(two days) ago
(two days)before
next week
the following week
last week
the week before / the previous week
yesterday
the day before
yesterday
the day before
the previous year
the day after tomorrow
in two days’ time

- You eat too many crisps, said Mum.             - Mum said that I ate too many crisps.
- Adel told Fatma, You have to be careful! - Adel told Fatma that she had to be careful.
- Im waiting for my friend now, said Mayar. - Mayar said that she was waiting for her friend then.
- Ramis father said, You did an excellent job last week, Rami,
- Father told Rami that he had done an excellent job the week before.
- Belal said, I will travel alone.                                  - Belal said that he would travel alone
- She said, “I shall write a letter tomorrow.” - She said (that) she would write a letter the day after.
- He said to me, “I can’t do it now.” - He told me (that) he couldn’t do it then.
- يمكن أن نحول الجملة إلي غير المباشر باختيار فعل قول مناسب لمعني الجملة فلا نحتاج إلي كل هذه التغييرات.
- He said, “Let’s discuss this question now.”         - He suggested discussing that question then.
- وفي حالة استخدام that بعد بعض هذه الأفعال تحول الجملة بنفس القواعد السابقة
- He said, “I wasn’t there when the crime happened.”
- He denied being there when the crime happened.
- He denied that he had been there when the crime happened.
- يمكن استخدام الأفعال الآتية بدلا من ( said to )عند نقل الجملة إلى غير المباشر ويأتي بعدها ((to + inf.
promised / offered / advised / agreed / threatened هدد / reminded / decided / refused
- He said, “I’ll give you all the money you need.”
- He promised to give me all the money I needed.
- إذا بدأت جملة الكلام المباشر بـ No / sorry / never …….)) فإنها تحذف و تتحول إلي refused / denied
- She said, "No, I can't swim". - She denied that she could swim.
- He wished me good morning and added that it was a fine day

لاحظ أفعال القول المستخدمة في الجمل التالية
- Ahmed said to me, "Will you help me?"         - Ahmed asked me to help him.
- Mohamed said, “Will you have lunch with me tomorrow? “
- Mohamed invited (asked) me to have lunch with him the following day.
- Heba said to Salma, “Would you mind studying English?"
- Heba asked (wanted) Salma to study English.
- Amal said, “Would you like to watch this film?"                             - Amal suggested watching that film.
- Eman said, “Would you like tea?"                                           - Eman offered me tea.
- Sally said “What about going to the cinema tonight?"
- Sally suggested going to the cinema that night.
- Mum said, "Why don’t you study? “           - Mum advised me to study.
- Ali said, “Why don’t you ask the teacher? “                             - Ali suggested asking the teacher.
- "Could I have a cup of coffee?" Aya said                             - Aya asked me for a cup of tea .
-"Could you answer this question, please" Asmaa said to Mai.
- Asmaa asked Mai to answer that question.
UNIT 10                Where today’s food comes from          ( workbook )
1 Complete the puzzle to find a word.
a the work of growing crops and feeding animals.                                                                      ……………………
b a type of crop changed by scientists.                                                                                    ……………………
c make liquid come out in a stream of very small drops.                                                         ……………………
d containing something that can kill you if you eat or drink it.                                           ……………………
e a chemical which is used to kill insects on crops.                                                        ……………………
The word in the boxes is ……………………..
2 Complete with the correct form of the words from Exercise 1.
a Farmers earn their money from ……agriculture…. .
b Look at the planes. They are…………………. the fields from the air.
c Some people believe that …………………fruit and vegetables are better for you than ones grown with chemical fertilizers.
d Some………………… people are worried that crops will bring diseases.
e Don't eat the fruit from that tree because it is………………… .
1 Find and correct the mistakes in the following sentences (one is correct).
a The teacher told that today’s lesson was about farming.
The teacher said that / told us that today’s lesson was about farming.
b Mona said that she has been to the park the Thursday before.
c Tarek told us that he can’t come to the meeting the previous evening because he is ill.
d My uncle explained that many people in India speak English.
e Karim said that he will buy organic food from the supermarket that evening.
2 Write what these people said.
a Ola told the class that she would give a talk about meat on that day.
“I’ll give a talk about meat today.”
b Ola explained that many farmers gave their animals vitamins to help them to grow.
c She explained that farm animals were also given medicines to stop them from becoming ill.
d Ola said that for these reasons, a lot of meat was not organic.
e She said that meat from these animals could contain chemicals from the vitamins and medicines.
f Ola explained that it was important to buy meat from farmers that looked after their animals well.
3 Report these sentences using the best reporting verb.
Walid               : I’ve heard that milk contains a lot of bacteria which can make you ill.
a Walid said he had heard that milk contained a lot of bacteria which could make you ill.
Mother That’s right. Milk is usually heated to kill the bacteria. This makes it safe to drink.
b........................................................................................................................................
Walid We always keep milk in the fridge.
c........................................................................................................................................
Mother That’s because it will keep fresh for longer in the fridge. You can only leave milk
out of the fridge for a little time.
d........................................................................................................................................
Walid The expiry date on this milk is June 30.
e........................................................................................................................................
Mother That’s right. All the milk that I bought from the supermarket yesterday can be
kept in the fridge for a week.
f ........................................................................................................................................
1 Find the words in the puzzle to match the definitions.
a I get my brown hair and eyes from my parents. they're in my… genes….
b ………………… is the adjective. The noun is gene.
c Fruit is ready to eat when it has been……………….. ed by the sun.
d The main ………………of the meal I'm cooking is cheese.
e When fruit or other food ………………, it is too bad to eat.
f Scientists can …………………..crops by adding or removing certain genes.
g People who do not have enough food to eat may die of ……………… .
h The food in that restaurant is of a very high………………… . It is very good.
2 Use your dictionary to complete the sentences, using the correct form of the word in brackets
a My brother wants to study… genetics…. at university.                                  (genetic)
b ………………fruit usually tastes sweet.                                                                   (ripen)
c This tomato is …………….. . I can't eat it.                                                        (rot)
d Scientists have made genetic …………….to some vegetables.                       (modify)
e Many people were very hungry after the storm. Some even began to……..           (starvation)
3 Complete these sentences with who is or whose.
a Leila is the student ….who is….. working on this project with me.
b That is the boy …………………. sister is a teacher.
c My friend, ………………..a pilot, has always loved flying.
d My brother, …………………friend is a Libyan engineer, is going to work in Tripoli.
e Ola, ………………….cakes are always delicious, is going to make a birthday cake for me.
f Mrs. Osman, ………………….a doctor at the hospital, has three children .
g ………………..bag is that? It is yours?
1 Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
a One of your friends eats food with too much fat in it. What do you say to him or her!
You mustn't eat too much fat. It's bad for you.
b A friend who has been ill asks for advice about food. Suggest fruit.
c One of your friends says he/she is always tired. You think he/she needs more exercise.
d A friend of yours has poor teeth. Tell him/her to drink milk regularly.


Translate into English
1- Genetic engineering can prevent insects and diseases from destroying crops by modifying fruit and vegetables so that there is plenty of cheap food for everyone.
2- Some organic farms don’t produce the same quantity of food. It is often more expensive to produce the food.
3- Many people think that interfering with nature may have bad consequences. For them modifying genes should never been done. On the other hand, scientists see that the solution to many of the food problems lies in genetic modification.
4- I don’t like the idea of eating fruit and vegetable sprayed with pesticides. The main reason for this is that pesticides can be poisonous. Therefore, I buy organic food however expensive it is.
5- Our ancestors used to be food gatherers. They hunted animals and caught fish for food. They collected nuts, roots and fruits as well.
Translate into Arabic
1- هل من الأفضل أن يقوم العلماء بتغيير الجينات الوراثية في المحاصيل؟
2- بدأ الإنسان في الاستقرار عندما عرف الزراعة.
3- علم الهندسة الوراثية من الموضوعات التي تثير جدلا كبيرا بين الناس
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