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الوحده الحادية عشر منهج اللغة الانجليزية للصف الثاني الثانوي الترم الثانيunit 11 2018

 unit 11



ashore
إلي الشاطـــــئ
primitive
بدائـــــي
belong to
ينتمي إلي
stage
مرحلــــة
develop
يطور - يتطور
development
يطور - تنمية
remote
بعيد / نائـــــي
distance
مسافـــــة
whale
حـــــوت
whaling
صيد الحيتان
activity
نشـــــاط
hunt
يطارد بغرض الصيد
navy
البحريــــة
old-fashioned
غير مساير للموضة
cave
كهــــــف
aboard
علي متن (سفينة)
above
فـــــوق - أعلي
abroad
خـارج البلاد
ahead
أمـــــام
come out
يصــــدر
popular
شعبي - مشهور
import
يستورد
ordinary
عــــادي
adventure
مُغَامَـــــــرَة
adventurous
مُغَامِـــــــر
adventure story
قصة مغامرات
Pacific Ocean
المحيط الهادي
serious
خطيـــــــر
seriousness
جدية / خطورة
continue
يواصل - يستمر
except
ما عدا
poems
قصائــــد
protect
يحمي - يقي
armed
مُسلـــــح


 
weapons
أسلحـــــة
soap
صابـــون
attack
يهاجم / هجوم
criticize
ينتقــــــــــد
physical
بدنـــــي
critic
ناقــــــد
violence
العنـــــف
criticism
النقـــــد
continent
قــــــارة
offer
يقدم / يعرض
several
عديــــــــــد
unfortunately
لسوء الحظ
crew
طاقم طائرة - سفينة
gold coin
عملة ذهبية
determined
مصمم / عازم علي
rescue : save
ينقـــــــذ
describe
يصـــــف
character
شخصيــــــة
drown
يَغــَرق - يُغـِـرق
review
عرض نقدي لفيلم
sink
بغــــــوص
details
تفاصيـــــل
breathe
يتنفــــــس
stubborn
عنيــــــد
enemy
عــــدو
alternatives routes
طرق بديلة
harpoon
رمح لصيد الحيتان
force
قوة / يُجبر
spear
رمـــح - حَرْبَــة
sailor
بحــــــار
purpose
غــــــــــرض
scene
مشهد - منظر
ram
يصطدم بشدة بـ
marine life
الحياة البحرية
destroy
يدمـــــر
recommend
يرشح - يذكي
continent
قـــــارة
recommendation
توصية - تزكية
storyteller
راوي القصة
cruel
قاسي
catch
يصيد / يمسك
cruelty
قســـــوة
humans
البشــــــــــر
message
رسالــــــــــة
get revenge
يثأر / ينتقم
actions
تصرفات - أفعال
poems
قصائـــــــــد
means
وسائــــــل
strange
غريـــــــــب
extinct
منقــــــرض
islanders
سكان الجُزُر
extinction
الانقراض
disappointment
إحبــــــــــاط
exactly
بالضبـــط
remote control
جهاز تحكم عن بعد
incredible
لا يصدق - مذهل
whaling ship
سفينة لصيد الحيتان
consequences
نتائــــــج - عواقب
sharp
حــــــاد
ambitious
طمــــــــــوح
metal
معــــدن
ambition
الطمــــــــــوح
definitely
بالتأكيــــــد
balance
تــــــــوازن
whenever
في أي وقت
details
تفاصيـــــل
storyteller
راوي القصة
incredible
لا يصـــــدق


Definitions

ashore
onto or towards the side of a lake, river, sea or ocean
علي الشاطئ
primitive
belonging to an early stage of the development of humans or animals
بدائـــــــــــي
remote
far away in distance or time
نائي - بعيد
whaling
the activity of hunting whales
صيد الحيتان
navy
the people and ships that a country has to protect it
البحرية
armed
describes someone or something that carries weapons
مسلـــــح
attack
try to hurt or damage by using physical violence
يهاجــــــــــم
continent
a large area of land that contains several countries
قــــارة
crew
the people who work on a ship determined: describes someone who wants to do something very much
طاقـــــم
drown
die by sinking into water and not being able to breathe
يغــــرق
enemy
someone who doesn’t like you
عـــدو
harpoon
a weapon like a spear
رمح لصيد الحيتان
purpose
a reason for doing something
غــــرض



Expressions




work in ordinary jobs
يعمل في وظائف عادية
live on an island
يعيش على جزيرة
come out
يصدر( للكتب )
be bored with
يشعر بالملل من
life at sea
الحياة في البحر
look for : search for
يبحث عن
fall to his death
يسقط ميتا
at the time of his death
في وقت وفاته
play a vital role in
يلعب دورا حيويا في
on his voyage
في رحلته البحرية
hold onto
يتشبث بـ
ram: collide with: crash into
يصطدم بـ
armed with
مسلح يـ
ready to + (inf.)
مستعد لـ
be born into a rich family
يولد في أسرة غنيـــة
ready for + (n)
مستعد لـ
win his fight with
يكسب معركته مع
put….sth. ….. down
يضع ....... جانبا


Verb
armيسلـــــح
determine
يصــمم
destroy
يدمر
bore
يُشعر بالملل
disappoint
يحبـــــط
excite
يثيــــر
protect
يحمــــي
………….
………….
………….




Noun
Adjective
army
جيش
armed
مسلح
arms
أسلحة


determination
تصميم
determined
مصمم / عازم
destruction
تدمير
destructive
مدمر
boredom
الملــــــــل
bored
شاعر بالملل
disappointment
الإحباط
disappointed
محبَـــــط
excitement
إثارة
exciting
مثيـــــر
protection
حمــــاية
protective
واقــــي
scene
مشهد - منظر
scenic
تصويري - تمثيلي
remoteness
بُعد شديد شديد
remote
نائي - بعيد
navy
البحرية
naval
متعلق بالقوات البحرية



Antonyms

Word
Antonym
float
يطفو
sink
يغوص
serious
جاد
funny
مَـــــرِح
exciting
مثير
boring
ممل
usual
معتاد
unusual
غير معتاد
fashionable
مساير للموضة
old-fashioned
غير مساير للموضة
primitive
بدائي
civilized
متحضر




1- offer: يعرض / يقدم           - She was offered a job in Paris. - Can I offer you a drink?
  give: يعطى / يمنح            - He gave me a nice present.
2- hunt: يطارد بغرض الصيد            - They hunted the deer for 5 hours before they could catch it.
  catch: يصطاد / يمسك - يقبض علي                      - He went to the sea to catch fish.
              - The police ran after the thief and caught him at the end of the street.
3- sink                                  يغرق / يُغرق (عادة للسفن و القوارب)
- The ship sank to the bottom of the ocean.                            - The big blue whale sank the fishing boat.
  sinkيقل / ينخفض            - The Egyptian pound has sunk to its lowest level against the dollar.
  drown يغرق (عادة للأشخاص)           -Two boys drowned while they were swimming.
4- advise: ينصح                       - My father advised me to study hard.
  recommend + اسم / v.ing:                                              ينصح / يرشح / يوصى بــ / يثنى على
- He recommended (advised) me to buy one of these radios.
- He recommended me a good book to read.               - My uncle recommended me for a job in the bank.
- I recommend spending the weekend in Luxor.
5- try + to + مصدر :                                                                    يحاول ( يبذل جهد )           
- He tried to climb the tree but he couldn't.                            = - He failed to climb the tree.
  try + v.ing :                                                                               يجرب ( يفعل شيء ليــــــري نتيجته)           
- A: I have a bad headache.                            B: Try taking an aspirin. = Take an aspirin and see the result.
6- coastساحل (تستخدم عند الإشارة إلى موقع بالنسبة للخريطة)
- The ship sank three miles off the French coast.
- There is rain over the whole of the west coast of Britain.
  beach البلاج (جزء من الشاطئ يستمتع فيه الناس بقضاء الإجازة)
- We spent a very nice time on the beach.
shoreالشاطئ             - The shores of the Mediterranean have a population of more than 120 million people.
ashore إلي الشاطئ           - When the boat reached the port, we went ashore.
bank                      ضفــة النهر أو البحيرة            - Most Egyptians live on the Nile banks.
7- be determined to يكون مصمما على / يكون عازما على            - He was determined to travel abroad.
8- whenever = every time or any time                                                                   حينما / عندما            
- Whenever she comes, she brings us some presents. - I can meet you whenever you like.
  whoever = the person who or any person                                                                  أي شخص/ أيا كان
* Whoever pollutes the environment should be punished.
  wherever = to any place or every placeأينما / حيثما             - Wherever he goes, he makes friends.
  whatever = anything or everythingأي شيء                       - You can eat whatever you like.
9- لاحظ استخدام المقطع multi- بمعني متعدد مع كلمات معينة مثل :
multinational                                 متعدد الجنسيات                      multipurpose                                 متعدد الأغراض
multimedia                                          وسائط متعددة                      multicultural                                  متعدد الثقافات
10- matter (v.) يهم
- Does it matter if I come late?                                          - It doesn't matter to me what you do.
  matter (n.)                                                                                                   أمر / مشكلة / مسألة                      
* What's the matter with you?               = What's wrong with you?               What's the problem with you?
- It's a matter of life and death.                                              مسألة حياة أو موت
- As a matter of fact, …في الواقع / في الحقيقة            - It's a matter of time. إنها مسألة وقت
11- purpose غرض                       - Our campaign's main purpose is to raise money for charity.
  aim هدف                       - Our main aim is to increase our exports to Europe.
  intention نية ـ قصد                      - I have no intention to go to the party.
  plan خطة                       - There is no plan to build new metro stations.
12- hero                                   بطل ( محارب بارز ـ تاريخي ـ في فيلم ـ مسرحية ـ شخص محبوب لإنجازاته )
- El Sadat was 6th of October war hero.           - The hero of the novel is a ten-year old boy.
  champion بطل ( رياضي )           - He was a champion in squash.
13- gold: الذهب / ذهبي ( أي مصنوع من الذهب )
- Many necklaces are made of gold.       - Her father bought her a gold ring.
  golden: ذهبي اللون / ذهبي                      - Mary has got golden hair.
- She missed a golden opportunity فرصة ذهبيةby turning down رفض the job.
14- avoid + v.ing: يتجنب / يتحاشى           - It's better to avoid traveling during the rush-hour.
15- adventure مغامرة                                          - When you are a child, life is one big adventure.
  risk مخاطرة                                              - Smoking can increase the risk of developing heart disease.
17- crew طاقم السفينة أو الطائرة                                                   - None of the passengers and crew were injured.
  staff هيئة تدريس                                              - We have 30 part-time members of staff.


Making recommendations عمل توصيات
- I’m sure you’d enjoy / love this book.                                 أنا متأكد أنك ستستمتع بهذا الكتاب
- You really should read this book.                                                       يجب عليك حقا أن تقرأ هذا الكتاب
- I can (really) recommend this book (to you).                       بوسعي حقا أن أذكي / أرشح لك هذا الكتاب
Giving reasons
- It’s a very (exciting / interesting) story.                                          إنها قصــــــة مثيرة / شيقة جدا
- The characters are so real.                                                                             الشخصيات حقيقية جدا
- You won’t be able to put it down.                                                                  لن تتركه من يدك
- It’s so (easy) to read.                                                                                        يسهل قراءته جدا
Examples:
* Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
1- You see a friend reading a book. Ask your friend what the book is called and who wrote it.
- What is the name of the book you're reading and who wrote it?
2- A friend asks if you are enjoying your book. Say that you are and recommend it to your friend.
- Yes, I can really recommend this book to you.
3- Your friend asks why you would recommend the book. Give a reason
- I recommend it because it’s a very exciting story.
4- You have just bought a new CD by your favourite singer Recommend it to a friend.
- You really should listen to this CD - It’s great.

1- How did Captain Ahab lose his leg?
- He lost it when his ship was attacked by Moby Dick.
2- What did the sailor on another ship predict?
b He predicted that anyone who tried to kill Moby Dick would die.
3- How did Ishmael avoid drowning?
c He held onto a piece of floating wood until he was rescued by another whaling ship
4- How would you describe the character of Captain Ahab?
- He was very determined and only thought about killing the whale. He didn’t think about his crew.
5- What do you think was special about Moby Dick?
He was an intelligent whale and would do anything to stay alive.
6- Do you think that the whale was trying to kill Captain Ahab? Give your reasons
- No. Moby Dick was trying to protect himself. Captain Ahab was trying to kill Moby Dick.
If he hadn’t tried to kill Moby Dick then Moby Dick would not have tried to kill him.
7- Why do you think that Captain Ahab was so determined to kill Moby Dick?
- He was angry because he had lost his leg when Moby Dick attacked his ship.


8- Do you believe that Moby Dick was really Captain Ahab’s enemy? Why / Why not?
b No, he was not his enemy but Captain Ahab only thought of killing him and had made Moby Dick an enemy in his mind. Moby Dick was only trying to protect himself.
9- Do you think that Captain Ahab could have saved the lives of his crew? Why didn’t he?
c Yes, he could have saved the lives of this crew by not sending them out in boats a second and third time. He didn't save their lives because the only thing he was interested in was killing Moby Dick.
10- Do you think that the story of Moby Dick has a message? If so, what is it?
- Yes, the message is not to be too determined to do something. You must always think of the others around you, too, because your actions may affect many people.
11- Why do you think some people are against whaling?
- Because they fear that whales will become extinct?

The Past Perfect Tense
Form :                                           had + تصريف ثالث
- By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
- يعبر الماضي التام عن حدث وقع قبل حدث آخر في الماضي
- I had cleaned my room before I went to the club.
 - يعبر الماضي التام عن حدث وقع قبل وقت معين في الماضي
- Mustafa had done all his homework before midnight.
- كما يستخدم الماضي التام بدلا من الماضي البسيط و المضارع التام في صيغة الغير مباشر
- He told me that they had already paid the bill.
لاحظ الفرق بين هاتين الجملتين.
- When I arrived at the party, Tom left.                        =            Tom left when I arrived.
- When I arrived at the party, Tom had left.                       =            Tom left before I arrived.
يستخدم الماضي التام مع الكلمات الآتية:
afterبعد/             as soon as بمجرد أن            /           whenعندما                      / till / until حتى
before قبل             /           by the timeقبل           /          no sooner….than لم يكد... ... حتى
hardly (scarcely)……whenحتى …… لم يكد
1- After + subject فاعل + past perfect ماضي تام+ past simple ماضي بسيط
After + v.ing                                            +                past simple                                          ماضي بسيط
Having + pp                                            +               past simple                                          ماضي بسيط
- First he read the novel. Then he watched TV.
- After he had read the novel, he watched TV.             - After reading the novel, he watched TV.
- Having read the novel, he watched TV.
2- As soon as + subject فاعل + past perfect ماضي تام , past simple ماضي بسيط
- First he found a place. Then he parked his car. (as soon as)
- He parked his car as soon as he had found a place.
- يستخدم الماضي التام قبل أو بعدwhen و ذلك حسب ترتيب الأحداث.
- When he arrived, we had finished our dinner. = We had finished our dinner before he arrived.
- When we had finished our dinner, he arrived. = He arrived after we had finished our dinner.
- يمكن أن يأتي الفعلان مع when / as soon as في زمن الماضي البسيط.
- When I heard the news on the radio, I phoned her.
- As soon as I heard the news on the radio, I phoned her.

3- Past simple (negative) ماضي بسيط منفى + till / until + past perfect ماضي تام

- He found a place. Then he parked his car.                                                
- He didn’t park his car until he had found a place.
  * لاحظ أيضا استخدام ( until / till ) في الجمل الآتيــــــة
- I had waited for Sara until she arrived            - He had studied his lessons until dawn.
- I waited until 6 o’clock and then I went home.
4- Before + subjectفاعل + past simple ماضي بسيط ,              past perfect ماضي تام
- Before + v.ing +                               past perfect ماضي تام
- First he read the novel. Then he watched TV.                         (Before)
- Before he watched TV, he had read the novel. Before watching TV, he had read the novel.

5- By the time + subject فاعل + past simple ماضي بسيط ,              past perfect ماضي تام
- The police arrived but the thief escaped.                                    (By the time)
- By the time the police arrived, the thief had escaped.
6- By + نقطــــــة زمنيــــــــــــــــــــة + ........... ماضـــــي تـــــــــام .........
- By last Friday, he had finished the report.
- She had nearly revised all her lessons by six o'clock yesterday.
- يستخدم الماضي التام مع already/ just / never / yet إذا هناك تتابع في الماضي.
- When we arrived at the cinema, the film had already started.
- He told me he had already done his homework.
- She had just got home when I phoned her.
no sooner than
7- subjectفاعل + had + hardly + p.p. when , past simple ماضي بسيط
- لاحظ استخدامno sooner / hardly / scarcely بين had و التصريف الثالث(pp)
- They finished painting our new house. We moved into it.
- They had no sooner finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- They had hardly finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
- إذا بدأت الجملة بــ no sooner / hardly / scarcely نضع الجملة الأولى في صيغة استفهام.
  No sooner than
  Hardly + had + subject فاعل + p.p. + when + past simple ماضي بسيط
  Scarcely when
- They had finished painting our new house. We moved into it.
  (No sooner…..than / Hardly / Scarcely……………when)
- No sooner had they finished painting our new house than we moved into it.
- Hardly had they finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
- Scarcely had they finished painting our new house when we moved into it.
The past perfect continuous tense
Form :                                           had + been + v.ing
- The patient had been waiting in the emergency room for an hour before a doctor finally treated her

- يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر ليعبر عن حدث استمر لفترة في الماضي قبل وقوع حدث آخر ويستخدم عادة مع
since / for/ all / all / from …to….
- The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him
- يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر ليعبر عن علاقة تتابع في الماضي مع استمرار الحدث الأسبق لفترة زمنية. -
- He was covered in paint. He had been painting the room since we left.
- Our game of tennis was interrupted. We had been playing for an hour when it started to rain.
- يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر عادة مع أفعال يمكن أن تستغرق فترة طويلة مثل
(wait / do / study / live / work / stay / play / watch / sleep / run / walk / travel, ..etc)
-There were floods because it had been raining for three days.
- الأفعال التي تعبر عن حالــــــــــــة لا تستخدم في الأزمنة المستمرة عموما ومنها الماضي التام المستمر.
- We were good friends. We had known each other for 10 years.
- كما لا يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر مع الأفعال التي لا تستغرق عادة فترة طويلة في حدوثها مثل
  وفي هذه الحالة نستخدم الماضي التام البسيط (break down / stop / close / open/ end / finish)
- She was late for the meeting because her car had broken down.
- إذا ذكرنا عدد مرات حدوث الفعل لا يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر بل نستخدم الماضي التام
- When I met Ahmed, he had finished typing 3 reports.
- يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر بدلا من الماضي التام في الحالة الثالثة لــ (If ) الشرطية
- If the driver had been wearing a seat belt, he would probably have survived the accident
UNIT11        Herman Melville: Moby Dick ( workbook )
1 Match these words a-e with their meanings 1-6. (You do not need one.)
a navy                                                        1 ...….. very simple or old-fashioned
b ashore                                           2 …a… the people and ships that a country has to protect it
c primitive                                          3 …….. the activity of hunting whales
d remote                                           4 …….. on a ship
e whaling                                          5 …….. far away from other places
6 …….. onto land by the side of the sea
2 Complete with the words from Exercise 1.
a Ahab was the captain of the Pequod, which was a …whaling… ship.
b My cousin and his family live in a …………. part of the country, 50 kilometres from the nearest town.
c As soon as their ship arrived in the port, all the passengers went ………………..
d My grandfather was in the……………. and visited many different countries around the world.
e The cave painting was painted by ……………….. people thousands of years ago.
3 Which of these adverbs mean the following? Use your dictionary.
aboard                             above                             abroad,                             ahead
a onto land by the side of the sea                                                                                    ……ashore…….
b in or to a foreign country                                                                                                  …………………..
c in a higher position                                                                                                                …………………..
d in front                                                                                                                              …………………..
e on or onto a ship or train                                                                                                  …………………..
4 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The adjective is scene.. What is the noun?                                             …………………..
b The adjective is remote. What is the noun?                                             …………………..
c The noun is navy What is the adjective?                                             …………………..
d What does remote control mean?                                                        …………………..
1 Complete with the past perfect simple or continuous form of the verb in brackets.
a When Ali went to university, he …had been studying(study) English for ten years.
b I was tired yesterday morning because ……………………….. (read) until late the night before. By the time I went to sleep, I ……………………………..(read) a hundred pages
c My aunt decided to change the date of the family party, even though she ……………………….. (already / send) out 20 invitations.
d Although he ……………………...(train) for six months, Ali didn't win the race.
e We …………………………. (think) about staying in Alexandria for our holiday, but finally decided to go to the Red Sea, although we (go) there twice already.
2 Complete the sentences with the past perfect simple or continuous form of these verbs.
drink                             leave                             give                             talk            try            study                       wait             rain                      finish
a My friend and I had been talking…. for more than an hour before I put the phone down.
b Ali wasn't feeling well yesterday. He hard all weekend. He………………… to finish an essay the teacher him last week.
c By the time he ………………….reading the report, he two bottles of water.
d There was water on all the fields because it………………………. for three days.
e Amir ……………………school when he was 15, so he was not able to go to university.
f When the bus arrived at six o'clock, I …………………for an hour!
1 Complete the puzzle to find a word.
a sharp metal used for hunting whales                                                                      …………………..
b what you want to achieve when you do something                                          …………………..
c someone who does not like you and wants to hurt you                                          …………………..
d the people that work together on a ship                                                                      …………………..
e wanting to do something so much that you will not let
anyone or anything stop you                                                                                    …………………..
The word in the boxes is …………………..
2 Choose the correct verb to complete these sentences.
a In the storm, the boat … sank … and two people … drowned …. .                       (drowned / sank)
b The sailors ………………their ship and…………. ashore in a small boat.            (left / went)
c The elephant …………….the hunters and ……………completely their car.           (attacked / destroyed)
d They …………....the lion for three days and finally…………….. it while it was sleeping.
(caught / hunted)
e Ahab ………………a gold coin to the first sailor to see Moby Dick. As soon as one of the
men saw the whale, Ahab …………………him the coin.                                                         (gave / offered)
3 Answer the questions to describe the difference in meaning.
a What or who drowns and sinks?                                 People drown, a boat sinks.
b Which is usually bigger, a boat or a ship?
c Would it be worse to be attacked or to be destroyed?
d Which word means "to follow": to hunt or to catch?
e Which usually comes first, giving or offering?

Translate into English
1- We think that determination can be dangerous because you don’t always see other ways to achieve your goals.
2- Sometimes it is no good to be too ambitious about something. We must be realistic and think about the best way to achieve our goals.
3- Young people need to be determined if they want to realize their goals. They must know that life isn’t so rosy all the time.
4- Ships and boats always at risk. They are under the mercy of sea creatures and high winds.
5- It is important to think of other people and the results of your actions. You must not think only about your goals.
Translate into Arabic
1- تلعب الكائنات البحرية مثل الحيتان دورا حيويا في الحياة البحرية.
2- لقد هاجم حوت أزرق سفينة بحرية وغرق طاقمها بالكامل.
3- حقا إنه كتابي المفضل وبالتأكيد سأقرؤه مرات ومرات قبل أن أعيره لك.
4- يعارض الكثير اصطياد الحيتان حيث يوجد فقط القليل منها الآن.
5- استطاع الإنسان البدائي التأقلم مع الطبيعة، والبيئة التي يعيش فيها.

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