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unit 18اللغة الانجليزية للصف الثاني الثانوي الترم الثاني 2018

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 unit 18



ban
يمنع / يحظر
officially
بصورة رسمية
solid
صلـــــــب
demand
يطلب / طلب
state
حالــــــــة
liquid
سائـــــــل
dependence
اعتمـــــاد
severe lack
نقص حاد
heat (v)
يسخـــــــن
hunger
الجــــــــوع
fuel
وقــــــــود
explode
ينفجـــــــر
reduce
يقلـــــــــل
public transport
المواصلات العامة
explosion
انفجـــــــار
run out of
يستنفذ / يستهلك
wind
ريــــــــاح
pole
قطـــــــب
solve
يحـــــــــل
waves
أمـــــــواج
extreme weather
طقس متطرف
oil
البترول / الزيت
energy / power
طاقـــــــة
rainforests
الغابات المطيرة
carbon dioxide
ثاني أكسيد كربون
generate
يولـــــــد
Arctic
القطب الشمالي
volcano
بركـــــــــان
electricity
كهربـــــــاء
Antarctic
القطب الجنوبي
erupt
يثور (البركان)
personally
شخصيـــــــا
homeless
مشرد / بلا مأوى
climate
المناخ
feed / fed / fed
يطعـــــــم
temperature
درجة الحرارة
greenhouse effect
تأثير الصوبة
need
حاجة / يحتاج
degree Celsius
درجة مئوية
melt
يذوب / ينصهر
end
ينهـــــــى
coastal areas
مناطق ساحلية
issue
قضيـــــــــة
mental skill
مهارة عقلية
atmospheric
خاص بالطقس
create
يخلـــــــــق
physical power
قوة بدنية
marks
علامات / أثار
surprisingly
من المدهش
last
يستمـــــــر
nearly
تقريبـــــــا
pollution
تلـــــــــوث
authority
سلطـــــــة
sand storm
عاصفة رملية
global warming
احتباس حراري
lift
يرفـــــــع
forms of energy
أشكال الطاقة
oil crisis
أزمة البترول
traffic noise
ضوضاء المرور
barriers
حواجـــــــز
ability
قــــــــدرة
starvation
مجاعـــــــة
ice caps
قمم جليدية
permission
إذن / استئذان
rise
ارتفاع / يرتفع
light bulb
مصباح إضاءة
possibility
احتمــــــــال
flood
فيضـــــــان
wind power
طاقة الرياح
atmosphere
الغلاف الجوى
flood
فيضان / يفيض
recycle
يعيد استخدام
global
عالمي
migration
الهجـــــــرة
recycling
إعادة الاستخدام
issue
قضية ـ مسألة
mixture
مزيج / خليط
movement
حركـــــــة
smoke
دخــــــــان
surround
يحيـــــــط بـ
individuals
أفـــــــراد
available
متاح / متوافر
trap
يحجـــــــز
cans
معلبـــــــات
alternatives
بدائــــــــل
signs
علامـــــــات
local environment
بيئة محلية
rapidly
بسرعــــــــة
tips
نصائـــــــح
efficient
كـــــــفء
mainly
أساســــــــا
ability
قـــــــدرة
efficiency
كفـــــــاءة
climate change
تغير المناخ
collapse
ينهـــــار
wind power
طاقة الرياح
waterfalls
شلالات مياه
generate
يولـــــــد
cattle
الماشيـــــــة
food waste
فضلات الطعام
climatic
مناخـــــي
actually
في الواقع
food shortage
نقص الطعام
reproduce
يتكاثر / يعيد إنتاج
get worse
يصبح أسوأ
Definitions
ban
say that something must not be done
يمنع - يحظر
demand
the need that people have to get something
طلب
dependence
a need for something or someone
اعتمــــاد
hunger
the feeling you have when you need to eat
الجـــوع
run out of
to have nothing left after using something
ينفد ما لديه من
worrying
describes something that makes you feel worried or anxious
مزعـــج
Arctic
a very cold part of the world in the far north
قطب شمالي
dust
very small bits of dirt or soil in the air
غبـــار
greenhouse effect
the warming of the earth rise: increase or get higher
الاحتباس الحراري
surface
the outside or top part of something
سطـــح
rise
Increase or get higher
يزداد
turn down
reduce
يقلل
Expressions

increase by 2 degrees
يزداد بمقدار درجتين
demand for
الطلب علي
on a big scale
علي نطاق واسع
come out of
يخرج من
adapt to = adjust to
يتأقلم علي
bring back
يعيد
dependence on
اعتماد على
make way for
يفسح الطريق لـ
on a big scale
على نطاق واسع
do a project on
يعمل مشروع عن
end world hunger
القضاء على الجوع في العالم
plenty of
كثير من
ban …. from
يمنع ..... من
send ….. into
يرسل ..... إلى
increase in
زيادة في
make matters worse
يجعل الأمور أسوأ
demand for
الطلب على
go up
يزداد / يرتفع
breathe in
يستنشــــــق
cut down on
يقلل من
breathe out
يخرج زفيـــــــر
cut down trees
يقطع الأشجار
Derivatives
Verb
Noun
Adjective
dust
ينفض التراب
dust
التراب
dusty
مترب
erupt
يثور
eruption
ثوران
..............
depend
يعتمد
dependence
اعتماد
dependent
معتمد
..............
oil
الزيت / البترول
oily
زيتي
solve
يحل
solution
حل
..............
demand
يطلب
demand
طلب
demanding
يتطلب اهتمام و جهد
..............
climate
المنـــــاخ
climatic
مناخــــي
ban
يمنع / يحظر
ban
حظر / منع
banned
ممنوع
Antonyms

Word
Antonym
increase
يزيد / يزداد
reduce : cut
يقلل
melt
يذوب
freeze
يتجمد
formal
يتجمد
informal
غير رسمي
ban
يمنع
allow
يسمح
possible
ممكن
impossible
مستحيل
turn up
يرفع - يعلي (صوت)
turn down
يخفض (صوت)
heat
يسخن
cool
يبرد


1- run out: finish ينفذ (لا يتبعه مفعول)
- We need to find forms of energy that will never run out.
  run out of: use up ; exhaust                                                                                      يستهلك (يتبعه مفعول)
                     - We've run out of milk – can you go to the shop and get some?
2- affect يؤثر على (لا تأخذ حرف جر)                                 - Smoking affects health badly.
  effect                                  تأثير                       - Smoking has a bad effect on health.
3- like مثل
- Like most people, I’d prefer to have enough money, not to work.
  unlike على العكس من / على النقيض من                                  - Dan's actually quite nice, unlike his father.
4- stop + v.ing يمنع                                  - Countries must stop destroying the rainforests.
5- cause +مفعول + to + يجعل مصدر                      - The earthquake caused several buildings to collapse.
  make +مفعول + مصدر يجعل                       - The earthquake made several buildings collapse.
6- weather                                                                                         (الطـقس (حالـة الجـو في فتـرة معينــة
- What will the weather be like tomorrow ?               - What was the weather yesterday?
  climate                                                                                                    المنـاخ (حالـة الطقـس عموما )
- The climate of Egypt is fine all the year round.
7- raise                       raised                      raised يـربى حيوانـات / يجمـع مـال / يرفـع           
- Raise your hand if you want to answer.                      - He raised a lot of money abroad.
- His uncle raises cattle and sheep.
  arouse                       aroused            aroused يثيـر / يوقـظ
- His behavior aroused the suspicion of the police.              - Don’t arouse the baby.
  rise                             rose                             risen                             يرتفـع / تشـرق / ينهـض / يـزداد ( بـدون مفعـول )
- The sun rises in the east.                                           - I rise at 6.00 in the morning.
- When the visitor entered, all students rose.               - Taxis fare have risen.
  arise                       arose                       arisen                       يظهر / ينشـأ / يحدث ( بـدون مفعـول )
- A lot of problems arise because of misunderstanding.
8- on time في الموعد المحدد تماما/بدون تأخير                      - The train arrived on time.
  in time           في الوقت المناسب / مبكرا بما يكفي                       - He was in time for the 7 o'clock train.
9- feed يطعم                      - The baby is too young to feed itself.
  eat                                                          يأكل                      - He ate meat yesterday.
10- melt يصهر ـ ينصهر ( بالحرارة )                      - The has melted the snow.
  dissolve                       يذوب ـ يذيب ( في سائل )                      - Dissolve these pills in water.
11- ability                                  قدرة ـ مقدرة                      - Exercise will increase your ability to relax.
  capacity سِعـَة                      - The theatre has a seating capacity of 2000.
12- permission                                  إذن                      - Did Ali give you a permission to use his car.
  allowance                       مصروف ـ علاوة                      - His father gives him a small monthly allowance.
13- erupt                       يثور ـ ينفجر (بركان)                      - If a volcano erupts, it sends out smoke and fire.
  revolt            يثور على (وضع ـ نظام)                       - Teenagers always revolt against parents.
14- spend ... time ... (v.ing)           يقضي الوقت في                      - She spent the afternoon reading a story.
  spend money on                       ينفق المال على                      - She spent most of her money on clothes.
15- turn down                      يقلل - يخفض                       - I wish you'd turn down that music!
  turn down                      يرفــــــــض                       - The bank turned down my application for a loan.


[
Asking for permission طلب الإذن
* Can I ......... مصدر.............................?                                             هل أستطيع أن.................؟
- I’m doing a project on climate change. Can I ask you some questions?
- Yes, of course.                                                                      (Accepting permission موافقة )
* Would you mind v.ing..................?                                            هل لديك مانع...............؟
- I’m doing a project on traffic in cities. Would you mind answering some questions?
- No, that’s fine.                                                                       (Accepting permission موافقة )
* I wonder if I could... مصدر..............?                                            أنا أتساءل إذا كان من الممكن...............؟
- I’m doing a project on people’s driving habits. I wonder if I could ask you some questions.
- No, I’m sorry. I’m very busy at the moment.              (Refusing permission رفــض )
* Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
1- You are doing a project on public transport. You want to find out information from a friend What do you ask!
- Can I ask you some questions?
2- A friend asks if they can interview you to find out your opinions on the environment. You are happy about this. What do you say?                      - No, that’s fine.
3- You are doing a project on your local environment. You want some information from an important person in your town. What formal question do you ask!
- I’m doing a project on your local environment. Can I ask you some questions?
4- Someone asks if they can interview you. Unfortunately, you have too much to do. What do you say?
- No, I’m sorry. I’m very busy at the moment.

1- How could the increase in the temperature of the earth’s surface affect the world ?
- Ice at the poles will melt , sea levels will rise , there will be flooding and people will lose their homes.
2- Should people be worried about climate change ? Why/ Why not?
- Yes. The ice caps are melting , rain forests are becoming smaller and sea levels are rising . All of these things threaten man’s life on earth so we should be worried.
3- Why are rainforests being cut down?
- The trees are used for their wood. Sometimes trees are cut down so that there is land to grow crops.
4- What is the land used for after the trees have gone ?
- Some land is used for farming , some is used to build on.
5- What is the main reason for the increase in carbon dioxide?
- We burn fuels such as oil and gas
6- What is happening to the ice in the Arctic and the Arctic?
- It is melting because of global warming.
7- Why do you think that the climate is changing more quickly than in the past?
- Because cars and factories are producing more carbon dioxide , and because we are cutting rainforests.
8- Why do you think that we can help people who live in parts of the world which may flood in the future?
- We can build flood barriers to help stop flooding , or we can find people new places to live , but the best way is to stop producing so much carbon dioxide .
9- How can countries be persuaded to stop cutting down the rainforests ?
- They might be persuaded if they understand the dangers for the future. If people stopped eating so much meat and using so much wood or other crops , the trees wouldn’t need to be cut down
10- Do you think that people should turn down their air conditioning? Why / why not?
 - Yes. Because this will help to stop global warming. It means that less power will be used.
11- Do you think that petrol , oil and gas will be our fuels in the future?
- No , because I think petrol , oil and gas will run out.
12- What other forms of energy could we use ?
- We can use renewable energy from the sun ( solar power ) , the wind ( windmills ) , water ( hydroelectric) , nuclear energy and energy from snake waves and rubbish.
13- What do you think would persuade people to travel by public transport more often?
- Public transport should be cheaper , quicker and more comfortable.
14- Which do you think could be used as a fuel for cars?
- Fuel for cars can be produced from sugar cane , cooking oil and food waste.


Modal Verbs الأفعال المساعدة
* Can            ( ability )                                        القــــــدرة
- I can drive a lorry. - People in Britain can speak English
* Can = be able to + inf. = be capable of + V.ing = have the ability to + inf.
  = manage to + inf. = succeed in + v.ing إذا كان هناك صعوبة في أداء الحدث
- I am capable of driving a lorry. = I have the ability to drive a lorry.
* Can ……. Negative…….. can't                    - The wall is extremely high , I can't climb it.
* Can ……… Past……………. could            - When I was six , I could walk easily.

- In the past people could drive a car without passing a driving test.
 - In the past, women couldn’t vote in elections.
- تستخدم could / couldn't للتعبير عن قدرة عامة علي عمل شيء في الماضي (مثل السباحة وركوب الدراجات ، مثلا):
- She could read at the age of five. - I couldn't swim until the age of twelve.
- ولكن عند الحديث عن قدرة محددة علي عمل شيء في الماضي وكان غالبا من الصعب القيام به نستخدم
* Was / were able to = managed to + inf. = Succeeded in + V. + ing
- A mechanic managed to repair my car.- I succeeded in sending that e-mail after many attempts.
-We were able to arrive home through traffic jam.
* Can ……….. future……. will be able to           - in the future , we will be able to travel into space.
* Can : could ( permission )                               الإذن
- you can leave now if you like.                             - If your pen is broken you can use mine.
* Can = be allowed to = be permitted to = may ( formal permission)
- Only adults are allowed to vote in elections.
- May I use your phone, please? - You may borrow my camera tomorrow, if you like.
* Can……. Negative…….. can’t / mustn't
- In some countries, you can drive at the age of 17. (It is permitted by the law مسموح به قانونا)
- In some cities, people can't / mustn't use their cars every day. (It is against the law. ضد القانون)
- You can't park here. = You mustn't park here. (It is against the law. ضد القانون)
* Can ……… Past……………. could            - I told him he could take my camera.
* Can ( Possibility )                               الاحتمال
- It's a holiday tomorrow, My uncle may visit us
* Can = may = might = could
- I don’t know where my brother is , he may / can / might / could be at school.
* Can / may / could /might …….. Negative…… can't / couldn't           ( negative deduction )
- He can't be Egyptian – he doesn't speak Arabic.(This is not possible)
* Can / may / could /might …….. past…… may have + pp / might have + ppيمكن يكون حدث
- Sara may / might have travelled to Luxor yesterday . I don't know where she travelled.
* Can / may / could /might …….. past……could have + pp كان ممكن يحدث ( يعني لم يحدث )
- We were driving so fast . We could have had an accident                               ( و لكن ربنا ستــــــــر)
- I went to school on foot although I could have gone in my uncle's car. (ولكنني لم استغل الفرصـــــــــة)

* Can : could / Will / Would ( Polite request )                     الطلب المهذب
- I'm broke . Can you lend me some money , please?
- Can you open that door, please? - Can I use your office tomorrow?
* Can : could                               ( Offer )                                             العرض                                 
- Can / could I carry the bag for you?
* We could                                         ( suggestion )                                        الاقتراح
 - W e have much time We could go to the cinema.
UNIT 18                            GLOBAL ISSUES                 ( workbook )
1 Complete the puzzle to find a word.
a need for something or someone                                                                                                  ……………………
b find an answer to a problem                                                                                                  ……………………
c making you feel worried                                                                                                                ……………………
d if there is a……………….. for something, people want to buy or use it              ……………………
e say that something must not be done                                                                                    ……………………
f use all of something so that there is none left (3 words)                                           ……………………
g you feel this when you need to eat                                                                                    ……………………
The word in the boxes is ……………….
2 Complete these sentences with words from Exercise 1.
a Countries have to work together to...... solve ......global problems.
b The…………………… for bottles of water increases in hot weather.
c If there is not enough food, people can die of ………………. .
d I think that the problem of global warming is…………………….. for us all.
e Some people believe we should ……………….. cars near schools.
f We will never .............. energy from the wind and sun, unlike oil and gas.
g Many countries have a …………………. on oil and gas to make energy.
3 Use your dictionary to answer these questions.
a The noun is hunger. What is the adjective?                                                        ……hungry……..
b The noun is dependence What are the adjective and verb?                                  ……………………
c What does independence mean?                                                                   ……………………
d The verb and noun are demand. What is the adjective?                                  ……………………
e The noun is climate. What is the adjective?                                                        ……………………
f The adjective is worrying. What is the verb and the noun?                                  ……………………
1 Write sentences about these animals' abilities using can and can't.
a Cats can catch birds and mice, but they can't fly.
b Lions………………………………………………………………………………………………………
c Whales……………………………………………………………………………………………………
d Birds………………………………………………………………………………………………………
e Elephants………………………………………………………………………………………………...
f Snakes…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2 Use can / can't, could / couldn't and your own ideas to answer the questions.
a A What's that dark thing in the sky;
  B It could be a bird or a small plane
b A What shall we do at the weekend?
  B We …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
c A Is there a free room in the school for our English club to meet?
  B Yes, we ……………………………………………………………………………………………….
d A I need to tell Hassan w here we're meeting.
  B You ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
1 Match these words a-e with their meanings 1-5.
a Arctic                                  1…….. the warming of the air around the earth as a result of pollution
b dust                                             2…….. increase or go up
c greenhouse effect                       3…….. the outside or top of something
d rise                                             4a.... the very cold part of the world in the far north
e surface                                  5…….. very small bits of dirt or soil in the air
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets.
a The flight was late because of the … atmospheric… conditions.                       (atmosphere)
b When our car broke down, it left ……………… marks on the road.                       (oil)
c The …………………….of the volcano lasted for nearly three days.                       (erupt)
d That old factory is ………………….the air in our city.                                             (pollution)
e After a sandstorm, everything is very……………….. .                                             (dust)
f The factory's …………………of cars has risen this year.                                  (produce)
2 Punctuation: Inverted commas
a Inverted commas, or speech marks, are used to show the words people speak. They are at the beginning and the end of these words.
b They are often used with phrases like said / asked, etc.:
"Do you think that climate change is the world's most serious problem?" she asked.
"Yes, I do," he replied.
1- مصر فخورة بعلمائها الذين حققوا انجازات عظيمة في كل المجالات.
1- Egypt is proud of her scientists who have made scientific achievements in all fields.
2- يجب أن تتعاون جميع الدول لحماية الانجازات البشرية من الدمار.
2- All peace-loving nations must cooperate to protect human achievements from destruction.
3- أقوم الآن بعمل بحث عن التكنولوجيا الحديثة.
3. Now I am doing research about modern technology.
4- لم يسبق لي زيارة أي بلد أجنبي في أوربا أو أمريكا من قبل.
4- I have never been to any foreign country in Europe or America before.
5- متى ستصل الطائرة إلي مطار روما- صباحا أم مساءا؟
5- When will the plane reach Rome: in the morning or evening?
- Translate into English
1. إن السد العالي يحمى مصر من الجفاف ويزودنا بالكهرباء
2. تحتفل كل الأسر في مصر بعيد الأم كل عام
3. تزايد السكان في دوله نامية يعوقها عن التقدم السريع
4. يعد إنشاء الكثير من مكتبات الطفل خطوه هامه نحو إثراء ثقافة الطفل
5. ستكون جنوب سيناء في المستقبل القريب مركز سياحيا هاما.
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الاسمبريد إلكترونيرسالة