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unit16 لغة انجليزية الصف الثاني الثانوي ترم ثاني 2018


unit16





mass tourism
سياحة جماعية
earner
مورد/ مصدر دخل (للدخل)
huge business
عمل تجاري ضخم
staff
هيئة موظفين
employ
يوظف / يُشغل
stone floor
أرضية من الحجر
accommodation
إقامـــــــة
Greek times
العصور الإغريقية
block the way
يسد الطريق
pretend
يتظاهر
air travel
السفر جوا
tourist industry
صناعة السياحة
package tour
رحلة جماعية
cathedral
كاتدرائية
resort
مكان لقضاء الأجازة
value for money
تمنه فيـــــــه
tourist season
موسم سياحي
cause damage
يسبب أضرارا
currency
عملـــــــة
book : reserve
يحجــــــــز
valley
وادي
culture
ثقافـــــــة
disrupt
يعطـــــــــل
hotel staff
العاملين بالفندق
reputation
سمعـــــــة
extend stay
يمد الإقامة
horse-riding
ركوب الخيل
customer
عميـــــــل
five star hotel
فندق خمسة نجوم
air-hostess
مضيفة جوية
take it easy
يسترخي / يتمهل
waiter
نادل ( جرسون )
isle seat
مقعد بجوار الممر
fixed price
سعر ثابت
waitress
نادلــــــــــــة
window seat
مقعد بجوار النافذة
wear away
يتآكل - ينحت
ecotourism
سياحة البيئة
relaxation
استرخــــــاء
holidaymaker
سائـــــــح
cooking
الطهي
strong ties
علاقات قوية
tourist sites
أماكن سياحية
destination
جهة الوصول
requirements
احتياجات- متطلبات
ecotourism
السياحة البيئية
dispense with
يستغني عن
production
إنتـــــــــــــــاج
overcrowding
ازدحام شديد
indispensable
لا نستغني عنه
means
وسائل - سُبل
relaxing
مريــــــح
maintain
يحافظ علي
unite
يتحـــــــد
ancient history
التاريخ القديم
consequences
نتائـــــــج
luxury
رخــــــــــاء
golf course
ملعب جولف
promote
يدعم ـ يشجع
welfare
رفاهيــــــة
splendid
رائـــــــع
promotion
ترقيـــــة
civilization
حضارة - مدنية
nuisance
إزعاج ـ مضايقة
travel agent
وكيل سفريات
civilized
متحضر - متمدن
vacancy
وظيفة خاليـــــة
travel agent's
شركة سياحة
reputation
سُمعـــــــــــــة
building workers
عمال البناء
travel agency
شركة سياحة
disturb
يزعـــــج
local people
السكان المحليون
manager
مديـــــــر
disturbance
إزعـــــــــاج
astronaut
رائد فضـــــــاء
express
يعبـــــــر عن
nuisance
إزعاج - مضايقة
crowded
مزدحـــــــم
expression
تعبيـــــــر
keep quiet
يلزم الهدوء
congestion
تكـــــــدس
feelings
مشاعـــــــر
quietness
هـــــــــدوء
travel company
شركة سياحية
demolish
يهـــــــدم
stuff
يحشو - يكدس
Definitions
accommodation
a place to stay
إقامـــــــــــــة
culture
the beliefs, behaviour, art and ideas of a society
ثقافة - حضارة
take it easy
relax
هوّن عليك
particular
special or important
معين - محدد
reputation
the opinion people have of someone
سُمْعَـــــة
pretend
 behave as if something is true when it is not
يتظاهر - يدعي
staff
a group of people who work for an organisation
مجموعة عاملين
travel agent
someone whose job is to help people make travel arrangements
وكيل سفر
visitor
a person who visits a place or a person
زائــــر
package tour
holidays arranged by a travel company which include travel, accommodation and sometimes food for a fixed price
رحلة منظمة بسعر مخفض
include
contain something as part of something else
يتضمن
fixed
arranged in advance and not able to be changed
ثابت
mass
a large number grouped together
جمْع - حشْد
cathedral
a large, important church
كاتدرائية
wear away
become damaged after repeated use
يتآكل - ينحت
block
stop or get in the way of something
يسد - يمنع
employ
gives work to people
يوظف - يشغل
Expressions
at particular times
في أوقات معينة
knock down = pull down
يهدم
cut down
يقطع / يقلل
essential for
ضروري لـ
add to
يضيف إلى
stay at / in a hotel
يقيم في فندق
benefit from
يستفيد من
at its best
في أفضل صورة
public transport
المواصلات العامة
take a trip to
يقوم برحلة إلي
value for money
ثمنه فيه ـ يستحق المال
on the Red Sea coast
على ساحل البحر الأحمر
fill in a form
يملأ استمارة
for a fixed price
يسعر ثابت
bring money into
يجلب المال لـ
make money out of
يجنى مالا من


Derivatives
Verb
Noun
Adjective
pretend
يتظاهر
pretension
تظاهر
pretentious
متظاهر / مدع
pollute
يلوث
pollution
تلوث
polluted
ملوث
attract
يجذب
attraction
جذب
attractive
جذاب
employ
يوظف - يشغل
employment
توظيف
employable
صالح للوظيفة
produce
ينتـــج
production
إنتـــــــــــــــاج
productive
منتـــج
benefit
يفيد - يستفيد
benefit
فائدة
beneficial
مفيد

Antonyms

Word الكلمة
Antonym العكس
employer
صاحب العمل
employee
موظف
crowded
مزدحم
empty
خالي
damage
يدمر
fix / mend
يصلح
local
محلى
global
عالمي
outskirts
ضواحي
centre
وسط
pollution
تلوث
purity
نقاء




1) (WEAR) AS A PHRASAL VERB                                 (Wear                       wore                       worn)
- wear away : eat away                                                                   ينحت - يعري
- Over time, the wind and rain wear away the stone of buildings.
- The stairs in the castle have been worn away by hundreds of visitors.
- wear away                                                                   يتآكل - يتعرض للتعرية (يصبح أقل سمكا)
- The face of the statue was wearing away due to acid rain
- wear down يُضْعِف / يتغلب بالتدريج علي                       - She was worn down by overwork.
- In the second half, we wore down the other team and won the match 3-2.
- wear off يختفي أثره أو يزول بالتدريج                       - The pain in my knee is slowly wearing off.
- If you take this medicine now, it won't off until tomorrow.
- wear on                                                                                                               يمر ببطء (للوقت)           
- As the week wore on, she discovered that she achieved nothing.
- It was hard work and, as the day wore on I became more and more tired.
- wear out يبلي ولا يصلح للاستخدام                       - My boots wore out. I need to buy a new pair.
- These shoes are going to wear out soon. I'll have to buy some more.
- wear out يرهِق - يُتْعِب                            - That long bicycle ride wore me out.
- Hard work will wear you out if you do not take breaks

2- I wish + فاعل + would / could + مصدر
- تستخدم للتعبير عن أمنية في المستقبل
- لاحظ استخدام could مع I / we و استخدام would مع باقي الضمائر
- I wish I could give up smoking.            - I wish Dalia would help me with my homework.
- I wish + فاعل + ماضي بسيط
- تستخدم للتعبير عن أمنية لن تتحقق في الحاضر
- I wish my Dad owned a car.                                  - I wish the weather weren't bad today.
- لاحظ استخدام were مع المفرد و الجمع للدلالة على الاستحالة.
- I wish + فاعل + ماضي تام
- تستخدم للتعبير عن أمنية لم تتحقق في الماضي .
- I wish I had joined the Faculty of Law.           - I wish I hadn't ignored my father's advice.
3- encourage + v.ing يشجـع            - We should encourage reading as it is very useful.
  encourage .. sb .... to + inf                                 - My parents encouraged me to be independent.
  discourage ... sb .... from + ( v + ing) يمنـع            - My parents discouraged me from smoking.
4- recommend + v.ing / n. يرشح           - I recommend sending him an e-mail.
  recommend..sth ... to .. sb.. يوصـى بـ ـ يرشـح           - I recommend this book to you.
  recommend ...sb .... for... sth..                      - She can recommend the right person for the job.
  recommend ..sb.. sth... to .. inf.                      - He recommended me a good book to read.
5- reputation سمعة ( آراء الناس )                      - She soon acquired a reputation as a first – class cook.
  fame شهرة                      - He went to Hollywood in search of fame and fortune.
6- destination مكان الوصول ( المكان المقصود )
- Our luggage was checked all the way through to our final destination.
  location موقع                      - What is the exact location of the ship.
7- earner مصدر ربح أو دخل                    - Tourism is the biggest foreign currency earner.
  breadwinner عائل الأسرة                       - My mother was the breadwinner in our family.
8- souvenir هدية تذكارية                      - Tourists always buy souvenirs from Khan ElKhalili.
  memory الذاكـرة                      - My mobile has 1GB card memory.
  memory                                  ذكـري                      - We have good and bad memories.
9- Have you got anything to declare? هل لديك ما تعلن عنه؟ (في الجمارك)
10- try يحاول / يجرب                  - He tried to catch the thief, but he couldn't.
  try on يقيس (ملابس)                      - You can try on this shirt in the fitting room.


Making compromises تقديم التنــــــازلات
- Id prefer to go to , but Im happy to instead.           أنا أْفضل أن... , و لكن يسعدني أن .... بدلا من ذلك.            
- Id like to , but its probably better to .....                      أنا أود أن .... , و لكن ربما من الأفضل أن.....
coming to an agreement الوصول إلي اتفـــــاق
- Do we all agree? So were going to ?                        هل جميعنا متفقون , إذن فسوف نــ .......
- Thats good: we all agree.                       حسنـــا: نحن متفقون جميعا
Examples:
* Write what you would say in each of the following situations.
1- You have just agreed to watch a DVD with two friends. You are quite happy, but you did not choose the film. What do you say?
I'd prefer to see that film, but I'm happy to see this one instead.
2- You and three friends have just decided which DVD to watch. You are happy that the decision has been made. What do you say?
That’s good: we all agree.
3- You chose a holiday to Spain, but your friends all chose Italy, which was cheaper. You think their idea is probably better. What do you say?
I’d like to go to Spain, but it’s probably better to go to Italy.

1- How do visitors to Notre Dame in Paris damage the building?
-Their feet wear away the stone floors.
2- Why do you think that package tours became so popular?
- Because they made it easier to visit different countries. People knew what their holidays would cost.
3- Why do you think that so many tourists visit countries on the Mediterranean coasts?
- Because the countries all have good weather, nice beaches, historic sites etc.
4- Why do you think that air travel became cheaper? - Because more and more people wanted to fly to places. Perhaps it was cheaper to make planes and buy fuel, too.
5- How was tourism before the 1960s different from tourism today?
- Tourism wasn’t as popular as it is today because it was more expensive.
6- What are the good and bad effects of cheap air travel?
- More people get to see the world and visit great places, but those places can be damaged by tourism.
7- Tourism brings foreign currency into a country. What other advantages does tourism bring to a country and its people?
- Tourists can learn more about each other's culture and have a positive image of their country.
8- What makes particular tourist destinations popular? Think of three or four reasons - Good weather, great views, good beaches, historic sites, interesting cities, friendly people, good food, etc.
9- What advantages does tourism bring to a country and its people?
-Tourism brings hard currency and contributes to solving a part of unemployment . Tourists can learn more about each other ‘s countries and have a positive image of their country


Necessity & Obligationالإلـــــــــزام و الضرورة
Must / have to / need to
Must = it is necessary to ..
- تستخدم Must للتعبير عن ضرورة عمل شيء من وجهة نظر المتكلم وتستخدم لتقديم نصيحة قوية لشخص أو دعوة أو نذكر أنفسنا بضرورة عمل شيء ما
-You must come and see us at the weekend.                       (a warm invitation)
- You must wash your hands before you eat.                       (strong advice)
- We must buy souvenirs for our friends here.                       (a strong reminder to ourselves)
- لاحظ استخدام Must للتعبير عن الضرورة في المضارع والمستقبل فقط
 - I must go now.                        I must see my doctor tomorrow.
- تستخدم Mustn't / Must not للتعبير عن أن شيء ممنوع أو غير مسموح به أو تترتب عليه نتيجة سيئة إذا قمنا به
- Mustn't = (be) not allowed = (be) not permitted to = (be) banned =
  (be) prohibited = (be) forbidden to
- You mustn't smoke in hospitals.                                  = You aren't allowed to smoke in hospitals.
  =You aren't permitted to smoke in hospitals.            = you are forbidden to smoke in hospitals.
  =You are banned from smoking in hospitals.            =You are prohibited from smoking in hospitals.
- ويمكن أن تبدأ الجمل بالشيء الغير مسموح به
- Smoking is not allowed in hospitals.                      - Parking is forbidden here.
- تستخدم have to / have got to / Need to للتعبير عن إلزام مفروض علينا وليس أمامنا اختيار
- Have to / Have got to / Need to = It is necessary to.           ( We have no other choice)
- I can't go out. I have to work.                                 - My children have to go to school next year.
- He has got to sign all the papers.                                 - I need to take some medicine.
- في حالة التعبير عن الضرورة في المستقبل نستخدم must / have to / will have to
- I have to get up early tomorrow.                                 - I'll have to send the fax tomorrow.
- للتعبير عن الضرورة في الماضي نستخدم had to
- Had to = It was necessary to ..                                 - We had to take a taxi as it was raining heavily.
- يمكن استخدام have to في الأزمنة المختلفة (ما عدا الأزمنة المستمرة)
- I had to work six days a week. = - It was necessary for me to work six days a week.
- My flight is at six in the morning. I'll have to get up early.
- Have you ever had to go to hospital?
- في حالة التعبير عن عدم الضرورة في المضارع يمكن استخدام ما يلي
- Don't have to / don't need to / needn't = It isn't necessary to…
- When you are on holiday, you don't need to go to bed early.
- She doesn't have to work on Saturday.
- للتعبير عن عدم الضرورة في المستقبل نستخدم
- Won't have to = won't need to = It won't be necessary to …
- I won't have to clean the room tomorrow. Mother will do it.
- للتعبير عن عدم الضرورة في الماضي نستخدم
- Didn't have to = didn't need to = It wasn't necessary to:
- I didn't have to do the shopping yesterday. My brother did it.
- استخدام didn't have to + inf. يدل علي حدث لم يتم في الماضي لكونه غير ضروري
- I didn't have to go to school yesterday. It was a holiday.
- استخدام needn't have + PP. يدل علي حدث تــــــــم في الماضي على الرغم من كونه لم يكن ضروريا
- You needn't have brought your umbrella. It's not going to rain.
- لاحظ الفرق بين استخدام need to كفعل ناقص واستخدام need كفعل عادي بمعني يحتاج أو يتطلب
- This job needs computer skills.                      - I need to finish the job early. = I must finish it early.
- تستخدم Must في السؤال بدون فعل مساعد وتأتي في بداية السؤال:
- Must he send the e-mail now?
- في حالة استخدام have to / need to في السؤال نستخدم معهما فعل مساعد do / does / did
- Do you have to do the job now?                      - Does she need to go now?
- Did she have to borrow that money?
- تستخدم have got to في السؤال بدون فعل مساعد
- Have you got to be at the office every day?
- Has that man got to carry all the boxes by himself?
- تستخدم should / ought to / had better عادة للتعبير عن النصيحة
- should = ought to = had better = If I were you, I'd… = It’s a good idea to….
  = It’s advisable to….= It’s desirable to…+ inf.
- You should make a study plan to organize your work.
  = It is a good idea to make a study plan to organize ……..
- It is advisable to eat fresh food.            = You ought to eat fresh food.
- You shouldn't leave your job.                       = If I were you, I wouldn't leave my job.
 - تستخدم should have + PP. للتعبير عن أن شيء كان يجب أن يحدث في الماضي ولم يتم ونستخدمه عادة عندما نوجه اللوم لشخص لعدم قيامه بعمل معين
-You should have done your homework yesterday.
-You shouldn't have parked your car here. It's a 'No Parking' area.
UNIT 16                               TOURISM TODAY                  ( workbook )
1 Match these words a-h with their meanings 1-8.
a accommodation                             1 …….. the group of people who work for an organisation
b culture                                           2 …….. behave as if something is true when it is not
c particular                                           3 …….. relax
d pretend                                           4 …….. high quality considering the price
e reputation                                           5 …a… a place to stay
f staff                                                         6 …….. special or important
g value for money                            7 …….. the beliefs, behaviour, art and ideas of a society
h take it easy                                           8 …….. the opinion people have of someone
2 Complete with the correct form of the words from Exercise 1.
a When we went on holiday last year, we arranged our own … accommodation … in a small hotel.
b I really like …………………… at the weekends, as I work hard in the week.
c I want to be a doctor when I'm older, but I'll need to go to a…………………….. university that can teach me what I need to learn.
d Our school has a …………………….of 40 people. Most of them are teachers.
e Our dentist has a very good………………… . Everyone says how good she is.
f They enjoyed that meal and it didn't cost much. It was really good …………………….
g My brother and I used to play a game where we……………………. to be astronauts.
h When I go somewhere on holiday, I like to find out about the………….. of the people who live there.
1 Choose the correct verbs in these sentences.
a Most school children in Britain have to / need to wear a school uniform.
b You needn't / mustn't spend too much money. You'll want some for your holiday
c You have to / don't have to take that book back to the library yet. You can keep it for another week.
d You have to / need to pass your exams to go to university.
e I really have to / must phone Mazen. I promised I'd phone him as soon as I had any news.
f You mustn't / don't need to take this train. There's another one in ten minutes.
2 Rewrite these sentences using the verbs from Exercise 1.
a I want to go to university It's necessary to apply before the end of the week.
I want to go to university. I need to apply before the end of the week.
b I really wish you would see your doctor. You look ill. You …………………………………………
c I can't choose what time to get to school. School starts at 8.30. I …..………………….…………
d We're going shopping, but you can stay at home if you want. You don't……………………...…
e It isn't necessary for you to buy that book. You can borrow mine. You...…………………………
f Don't speak so loudly on your mobile phone. It's very annoying. You ……………………….……
3 Write what you would say in each of the following situations. Use the verbs from
Exercise 1.
a Your train leaves in ten minutes. It takes at least four minutes to get to the station.
           We need to leave now. The train leaves in ten minutes
b Your friend offers to go to the dentist with you, but you tell her not to worry, you can go on your own.              
I can go on my own. You…………………………………................…………………………
c You don't have any tea left. Explain why you are going to the shop.
           I am going to this shop because I …………………………………………………….………
d You are at your friend's house. Your parents have told you to be home at five o'clock. Your friend asks if you want to stay until eight 0' clock.
I'm sorry I can't. I …………………………..........................................................……………
e You see a small child who is about to touch a cat. The cat looks unhappy and frightened.
           That cat looks dangerous. You…………………………………………………………………
1 Complete the puzzle to find a word.
a stop something passing through a small space                                                       ………………….
b have as one of its parts                                                                                                                ………………….
c ................away: make something thinner or disappear by too much use              ………………….
d impossible to change/already decided                                                                                    ………………….
e pays someone to work for                                                                                                                ………………….
f involving a large number of people                                                                                    ………………….              
The word in the boxes is ………………………
2 Complete these sentences with words from the puzzle.
a The hotel on the beach …employs… many waiters and cleaners from the area .
b In Europe, …………………….. tourism began in the 1960s, when air travel became cheaper.
c If the car breaks down on the old road to the coast, it will .......... the road.
d…………………… is important because it brings money into countries.
e The cost of a flight from Europe to Egypt is…………… . It will not change until next year.
f If children play football for too long, they will ……………………the grass.
9 Does the price of the ticket ……………….. a visit to the museum gardens?
3 Use your dictionary to complete these sentences with the correct form of these phrasal verbs with wear.
wear down                       wear off                       wear on                       wear out
a In the second half, we …wore down… the other team and won the match 3-2.
b These shoes are going to …………….soon. I'll have to buy some more.
c It was hard work and, as the day ……………….. I became more and more tired.
d If you take this medicine now, it won't ……………….. until tomorrow.
e The stairs in the castle have been.................. by hundreds of visitors.

1- تلعب المدرسة دورا فعالا و مؤثر في خلق جيل بتحديات المستقبل.
1- School plays an effective role in creating a generation aware of future challenges.
2- يجب علي المواطنين معرفة و واجباتهم قبل المطالبة بحقوقهم في ظل الديمقراطية.
2- Under democracy, citizens should know their duties before they demand their rights.
3- عليك أن تتخلص من مخاوفك التي ليس لها تبرير مقنع.
3-You should get rid of your fears that have no reasonable justification.
4- الزراعة العضوية يمكن أن تحل مشكلة نقص الطعام.
4- Organic farming can solve the problem of food shortage in the world.
5- يمكنك شراء كل ما يلزمك و أنت جالس في بيتك عبر شبكة الانترنيت.
5-You can buy what you need while you are staying at home through the internet.
Translate into English:
1- من الطبيعي أن تكون لمصر علاقات قويه مع السودان.
2- تسعى الحكومة إلى توفير احتياجات الشعب بكل السبل
3- يجب أن نتحد ونقف كرجل واحد من أجل رخاء مصر
4- تؤثر الضوضاء تأثيرا سيئا على سمعنا.
5- علينا ألا نزعج المرضى أو الطلبة الذين يستذكرون دروسهم.


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